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Low vitamin D was again associated with winter, females, obesity, smoking, sedentary – Aug 2019

The Prevalence and Determinants of Vitamin D Inadequacy among U.S. Older Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2014.

Cureus. 2019 Aug 1;11(8):e5300. doi: 10.7759/cureus.5300.
Orces C1, Lorenzo C2, Guarneros JE3.
1 Rheumatology, Laredo Medical Center, Laredo, USA.
2 Rheumatology, University of Texas, San Antonio, USA.
3 Medicine, Universidad Anáhuac, Huixquilucan, MEX.


Deficiency of Vitamin D category starts with the following__

392 items   Some Highlights:

Women category starts with the following

Overview Dark Skin and Vitamin D contains the following summary

FACT - - People with dark skins have more health problems and higher mortality rate than those with light skins
FACT - - People with dark skins have low levels of vitamin D
FACT - - People with light skins who have low vitamin D have health problems
OBSERVATION - - The health problems of whites with low level of vitamin D are similar to those with dark skins
CONCLUSION - - People with dark skins have more health problems due to low levels of vitamin D

African American Health Disparities are associated with low Vitamin D - Feb 2021

Low Vitamin D increases health problems - independent of skin color

Blacks die more often than whites of many diseases (they have less vitamin D) – 2012 contains the following summary
Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans Cancer.org

  • “African Americans have the highest death rate and shortest survival of any racial and ethnic group in the US for most cancers”
  • Has a huge number of tables and charts, Note: Vitamin D is not mentioned

Leading Causes of Death as of March 2018

All Ages Death rateBlackWhiteRatio
Heart diseases 217 1711.27
Cancer 1991701.17
Cerebrovascular diseases51361.4
Diabetes 40 192.0

Rates per 100,000    Age adjusted   Non-Hispanic

10 reasons why seniors need more vitamin D has the following

  1. Senior skin produces 3X less Vitamin D for the same sun intensity
  2. Seniors have fewer vitamin D receptors as they age
    • (The effect of low Vitamin D receptor genes does not show up on vitamin D test results)
  3. Seniors are indoors more than than when they were younger
    • not as agile, weaker muscles; frail, no longer enjoy hot temperatures
    • (if outside, stay in the shade), however, seniors might start outdoor activities like gardening, biking, etc.
  4. Seniors wear more clothing outdoors than when younger **+fear skin cancer/wrinkles, sometimes avoid bright light after cataract surgery
  5. Seniors often take various drugs which reduce vitamin D (some would not show up on vitamin D test) statins, chemotherapy, anti-depressants, blood pressure, beta-blockers, etc
  6. Seniors often have one or more diseases which consume vitamin D ( osteoporosis, diabetes, MS, ...)
  7. Seniors generally put on weight at they age - and a heavier body requires more vitamin D
  8. Seniors often (40%) have fatty livers – which do not process vitamin D as well
  9. Seniors not have as much Magnesium needed to use vitamin D
    (would not show up on vitamin D test)
  10. Seniors with poorly functioning kidneys do not process vitamin D as well
    (would not show up on vitamin D test) 2009 full text online  Also PDF 2009
  11. Vitamin D is not as bioavailable in senior digestive systems (Stomach acid or intestines?)

Overview Obesity and Vitamin D contains the following summary


  • Normal weight     Obese     (50 ng = 125 nanomole)

No such attachment on this page

Background Older adults (i.e., adults aged ≥ 60 years) are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency compared to younger adults as a result of inadequate dietary vitamin D intake and limited exposure to sunlight. Thus, the present study aimed to describe the prevalence of vitamin deficiency and inadequacy among U.S. adults aged ≥ 60 years and the effect of vitamin D supplementation on 25, hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and its metabolites concentrations. Methods The present analysis was based on data from 6,261 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles 2007/2008 through 2013/2014. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy was described according to demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L; and vitamin D inadequacy was defined as < 50 nmol/L. Logistic regression models were assembled to examine the independent association of participants characteristics and the odds of having 25(OH)D inadequacy. Similarly, general linear models were used to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation doses on 25(OH)D and its metabolites concentrations.

Results The prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency and inadequacy was 4.0% (standard error (SE), 0.4) and 17.4% (SE, 0.8), respectively. In general, the prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency and inadequacy increased significantly among participants

  • examined during the fall and winter months,
  • women,
  • non-Hispanic black patients,
  • obese subjects,
  • smokers,
  • those physically inactive, and
  • older adults with a daily vitamin D intake < 400 IU.

After adjustment for potential confounders, subjects

  • examined during the fall and winter months,
  • females,
  • non-Hispanic blacks,
  • obesity,
  • having a sedentary lifestyle,
  • smokers, and a
  • total vitamin D intake < 400 IU/day

were variables significantly associated with increased odds of having vitamin D inadequacy. Notably, vitamin D supplement doses between 400 and 800 IU or > 800 IU/day were significantly correlated with higher 25(OH)D3 concentrations considered as sufficient.

Conclusion 25(OH)D inadequacy remains prevalent among U.S. older adults. Notably, optimal 25(OH)D3 concentrations were consistently seen among vitamin D supplement users. Despite this finding, nearly half of the participants did not take vitamin D supplements. Thus, vitamin D supplementation should be considered an effective strategy to maintain adequate 25(OH)D status among older adults.

Created by admin. Last Modification: Friday October 4, 2019 16:32:32 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 7)

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12716 Prevalence and Determinants.pdf PDF 2019 admin 04 Oct, 2019 16:20 244.94 Kb 157
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