Toggle Health Problems and D

Low Vitamin D in Mongolia, supplementing would save lives (20 percent have rickets) – Oct 2019

A Review of the Potential Benefits of Increasing Vitamin D Status in Mongolian Adults through Food Fortification and Vitamin D Supplementation

Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2452; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102452
William B. Grant 1,* and Barbara J. Boucher 2

  • 1 Director, Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA
  • 2 The Blizard Institute, Barts & The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, 4 Newark Street, London E12AT, UK

Dr. Grant on vitamin D and mortality in VitaminDWiki

Overview of Rickets and vitamin D contains the following

Rate of rickets is usually < 0.1% of births, unless dark skin or breastfed
Rate of rickets has greatly increased with the drop in vitamin D levels during the past 40 years
400 IU can prevent/treat most rickets Turkey gave vitamin D to EVERY child and eliminated Rickets
A low serum level of vitamin D does not indicate rickets
Sometimes rickets is also associated with a poor vitamin D receptor
Giving enough Vitamin D to the mother PREVENTS Rickets
Rate of rickets in some countries varies from 10% to 70% (typically poor health overall)
Rickets has been more than doubling in many countries
Rickets is strongly associated with severe breathing problems (weak ribs)
Bowed legs is not the primary indication of rickets    (3 other indications of rickets are seen more often)
Some Rickets is due to poor genes - Vitamin D needed lifelong – June 2020
Vitamin D and Rickets consensus took 80 years

Rickets category has 127 items


This study concluded that TB is not treated by Vitamin D

TB is helped by Vitamin D, provided enough is given and Vitamin D receptor activation is increased

Reference #63: High-Dose Vitamin D3 during Tuberculosis Treatment in Mongolia. A Randomized Controlled Trial
Study found that those with poor VDR were 2X more likely to have TB

Overview Tuberculosis and Vitamin D has the following summary

Many studies have found that Vitamin D both PREVENTS and TREATS TB

TB and vitamin D 121 items

Items in both categories TB and Vitamin D Receptor gene are listed here:

A poor VDR increases the risk of 54 health problems (such as TB)  click here for details

Items in both categories TB and Radomized Controlled Trials are listed here:

Items in both categories TB and Meta-analysis are listed here:

Vitamin D treats other health problems as well - such as:

COPD fought by Vitamin D - many studies

Overview Stroke and vitamin D

Overview Kidney and vitamin D contains the following summary

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
   *Deaths/100,000 population ( Population = 3 million, so total deaths are 30X higher)

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are low in Mongolia, averaging 22 ng/mL in summer and only 8 ng/mL in winter. Mongolians have high incidence and/or prevalence of several diseases linked to low 25(OH)D concentrations, including ischemic heart disease, malignant neoplasms, cirrhosis of the liver, ischemic stroke, lower respiratory tract infections, preterm birth complications, and diabetes mellitus. Fortifying regularly consumed foods such as flour, milk, and edible oils with vitamin D3 could raise 25(OH)D concentrations by about 10 ng/mL.
However, to achieve 25(OH)D concentrations of 30–40 ng/mL in adults, vitamin D intakes of 1000 to 4000 IU/day would be required, making personal supplement use necessary. On the basis of prospective observational studies and clinical trials of disease incidence or known mortality rates and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, raising mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations to 40 ng/mL would likely reduce incidence and mortality rates for those and other diseases, reduce the rate of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, and increase mean life expectancy by one year or more.


  1. Webb, A.R.; Kline, L.; Holick, M.F. Influence of Season and Latitude on the Cutaneous Synthesis of Vitamin D3: Exposure to Winter Sunlight in Boston and Edmonton Will Not Promote Vitamin D3 Synthesis in Human Skin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1988, 67, 373-378. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Engelsen, O. The Relationship between Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Vitamin D Status. Nutrients 2010, 2, 482-495. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. World Bank. Gdp Per Capita, Ppp (Current International $). Available online: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.CD?locations=UA-AM-GE-MN-AL&name_desc=false (accessed on 11 October 2019).
  4. Dugee, O.; Palam, E.; Dorjsuren, B.; Mahal, A. Who Is Bearing the Financial Burden of Non-Communicable Diseases in Mongolia? J. Glob. Health 2018, 8, 010415. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Dugee, O.; Sugar, B.; Dorjsuren, B.; Mahal, A. Economic Impacts of Chronic Conditions in a Country with High Levels of Population Health Coverage: Lessons from Mongolia. Trop. Med. Int. Health 2019, 24, 715-726. [CrossRef]
  6. Moukayed, M.; Grant, W.B. Molecular Link between Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3993-4021. [CrossRef]
  7. Martineau, A.R.; Jolliffe, D.A.; Hooper, R.L.; Greenberg, L.; Aloia, J.F.; Bergman, P.; Dubnov-Raz, G.; Esposito, S.; Ganmaa, D.; Ginde, A.A.; et al. Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Acute Respiratory Tract Infections: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data. BMJ 2017, 356, i6583. [CrossRef]
  8. Wagner, C.L.; Hollis, B.W. The Implications of Vitamin D Status During Pregnancy on Mother and Her Developing Child. Front. Endocrinol. 2018, 9, 500. [CrossRef]
  9. Garland, C.F.; Kim, J.J.; Mohr, S.B.; Gorham, E.D.; Grant, W.B.; Giovannucci, E.L.; Baggerly, L.; Hofflich, H.; Ramsdell, J.W.; Zeng, K.; et al. Meta-Analysis of All-Cause Mortality According to Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D. Am. J. Public Health 2014,104, e43-e50. [CrossRef]
  10. Holick, M.F. Vitamin D Deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 2007, 357, 266-281. [CrossRef]
  11. Pludowski, P.; Holick, M.F.; Pilz, S.; Wagner, C.L.; Hollis, B.W.; Grant, W.B.; Shoenfeld, Y.; Lerchbaum, E.; Llewellyn, D.J.; Kienreich, K.; et al. Vitamin D Effects on Musculoskeletal Health, Immunity, Autoimmunity, Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Fertility, Pregnancy, Dementia and Mortality—A Review of Recent Evidence. Autoimmun. Rev. 2013,12, 976-989. [CrossRef]
  12. Wimalawansa, S.J. Non-Musculoskeletal Benefits of Vitamin D. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2018,175, 60-81. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. World Health Organization. Global Health Estimates 2016: Deaths by Cause, Age, Sex, by Country and by Region, 2000-2016. Available online: https://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GHE2016_ Death-Rates-country.xls?ua=1 (accessed on 19 August 2019).
  14. FAO. Food Balance Sheets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available online: http://faostat.fao.org/site/368/default.aspx#ancor (accessed on 11 October 2019).
  15. FAO. Global Food Losses and Food Waste—Extent, Causes and Prevention; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy, 2011; p. 29.
  16. Bromage, S.; Rich-Edwards, J.W.; Tselmen, D.; Baylin, A.; Houghton, L.A.; Baasanjav, N.; Ganmaa, D. Seasonal Epidemiology of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among Healthy Adults Living in Rural and Urban Areas in Mongolia. Nutrients 2016, 8, 592. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Dunlop, E.; Cunningham, J.; Sherriff, J.L.; Lucas, R.M.; Greenfield, H.; Arcot, J.; Strobel, N.; Black, L.J. Vitamin D(3) and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D(3) Content of Retail White Fish and Eggs in Australia. Nutrients 2017, 9, 647. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Fraser, D.R. Vitamin D-Deficiency in Asia. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2004, 89, 491-495. [CrossRef]
  19. Uush, T. Prevalence of Classic Signs and Symptoms of Rickets and Vitamin D Deficiency in Mongolian Children and Women. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2013,136, 207-210. [CrossRef]
  20. Brondum-Jacobsen, P.; Benn, M.; Jensen, G.B.; Nordestgaard, B.G. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease, Myocardial Infarction, and Early Death: Population-Based Study and Meta-Analyses of 18 and 17 Studies. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2012, 32,2794-2802. [CrossRef]
  21. Lee, K.J.; Lee, Y.J. Effects of Vitamin D on Blood Pressure in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2016, 54, 233-242. [CrossRef]
  22. Barbarawi, M.; Kheiri, B.; Zayed, Y.; Barbarawi, O.; Dhillon, H.; Swaid, B.; Yelangi, A.; Sundus, S.; Bachuwa, G.; Alkotob, M.L.; et al. Vitamin D Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease Risks in More Than 83000 Individuals in 21 Randomized Clinical Trials: A Meta-Analysis. JAMA Cardiol. 2019, 4, 765-775. [CrossRef]
  23. Manson, J.E.; Cook, N.R.; Lee, I.M.; Christen, W.; Bassuk, S.S.; Mora, S.; Gibson, H.; Gordon, D.; Copeland, T.; D'Agostino, D.; et al. Vitamin D Supplements and Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 2019, 380, 33-44. [CrossRef]
  24. Zhou, R.; Wang, M.; Huang, H.; Li, W.; Hu, Y.; Wu, T. Lower Vitamin D Status Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2018,10, 277. [CrossRef]
  25. Alfieri, D.F.; Lehmann, M.F.; Oliveira, S.R.; Flauzino, T.; Delongui, F.; de Araujo, M.C.; Dichi, I.; Delfino, V.D.; Mezzaroba, L.; Simao, A.N.; et al. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Acute Ischemic Stroke, C-Reactive Protein, and Short-Term Outcome. Metab. Brain Dis. 2017, 32, 493-502. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Hypponen, E.; Boucher, B.J. Adiposity, Vitamin D Requirements, and Clinical Implications for Obesity-Related Metabolic Abnormalities. Nutr. Rev. 2018, 76, 678-692. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Mousavi, S.E.; Amini, H.; Heydarpour, P.; Chermahini, F.A.; Godderis, L. Air Pollution, Environmental Chemicals, and Smoking May Trigger Vitamin D Deficiency: Evidence and Potential Mechanisms. Environ. Int. 2019,122, 67-90. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Kojima, G.; Bell, C.; Abbott, R.D.; Launer, L.; Chen, R.; Motonaga, H.; Ross, G.W.; Curb, J.D.; Masaki, K. Low Dietary Vitamin D Predicts 34-Year Incident Stroke: The Honolulu Heart Program. Stroke 2012, 43, 2163-2167. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Venketasubramanian, N.; Yoon, B.W.; Pandian, J.; Navarro, J.C. Stroke Epidemiology in South, East, and South-East Asia: A Review. J. Stroke 2017,19, 286-294. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. The Tobacco Atlas. American Cancer Society. Available online: https://tobaccoatlas.org/country/Mongolia/ (accessed on 11 October 2019).
  31. Forouhi, N.G.; Luan, J.; Cooper, A.; Boucher, B.J.; Wareham, N.J. Baseline Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Is Predictive of Future Glycemic Status and Insulin Resistance: The Medical Research Council Ely Prospective Study 1990-2000. Diabetes 2008, 57, 2619-2625. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Lucato, P.; Solmi, M.; Maggi, S.; Bertocco, A.; Bano, G.; Trevisan, C.; Manzato, E.; Sergi, G.; Schofield, P.; Kouidrat, Y.; et al. Low Vitamin D Levels Increase the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Maturitas 2017,100, 8-15. [CrossRef]
  33. Rafiq, S.; Jeppesen, P.B. Is Hypovitaminosis D Related to Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes and High Fasting Glucose Level in Healthy Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients 2018,10,1182. [CrossRef]
  34. Niroomand, M.; Fotouhi, A.; Irannejad, N.; Hosseinpanah, F. Does High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation Impact Insulin Resistance and Risk of Development of Diabetes in Patients with Pre-Diabetes? A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2019,148,1-9. [CrossRef]
  35. Pittas, A.G.; Dawson-Hughes, B.; Sheehan, P.; Ware, J.H.; Knowler, W.C.; Aroda, V.R.; Brodsky, I.; Ceglia, L.; Chadha, C.; Chatterjee, R.; et al. Vitamin D Supplementation and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. N. Engl. J. Med. 2019, 381, 520-530. [CrossRef]
  36. Lemieux, P.; Weisnagel, J.S.; Caron, A.Z.; Julien, A.S.; Morisset, A.S.; Carreau, A.M.; Poirier, J.; Tchernof, A.; Robitaille, J.; Bergeron, J.; et al. Effects of 6-Month Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2019, 181, 287-299. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. Bo, Y.; Guo, C.; Lin, C.; Chang, L.Y.; Chan, T.C.; Huang, B.; Lee, K.P.; Tam, T.; Lau, A.K.H.; Lao, X.Q.; et al. Dynamic Changes in Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter and Incidence of Hypertension in Adults. Hypertension 2019, 74, 669-677. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. Fukuoka, T.; Nakazato, Y.; Kawasaki, H.; Ikeda, K.; Furuya, T.; Miyake, A.; Mitsufuji, T.; Ito, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Araki, N.; et al. The Clinical Features of Ischemic Stroke Patients for Whom Smoking Was Considered the Sole Risk Factor for Ischemic Stroke. Intern. Med. 2018, 57,1703-1706. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. Fujihara, Y.; Nawata, H.; Honda, M.; Kunitake, T.; Aida, E.; Nagai, T.; Kuramochi, H.; Ueno, J.; Yoshimoto, S.; Muta, K. Comparative Study of the Correlation between Atherosclerosis and Osteoporosis in Women in Japan and Mongolia. J. Gen. Fam. Med. 2017,18, 237-243. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. Myanganbayar, M.; Baatarsuren, U.; Chen, G.; Bosurgi, R.; So, G.; Campbell, N.R.C.; Erdenebileg, N.; Ganbaatar, K.; Magsarjav, P.; Batsukh, M.; et al. Hypertension, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Primary Care Physicians in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. J. Clin. Hypertens. 2018, 20,1187-1192. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. Myanganbayar, M.; Baatarsuren, U.; Chen, G.; Campbell, N.R.C.; Bosurgi, R.; So, G.; Unurjargal, T.; Dashtseren, M.; Tserengombo, N.; Batsukh, B.; et al. Hypertension Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Nurses and Physicians in Primary Care in Ulaanbaatar Mongolia. J. Clin. Hypertens. 2019, 21,1202-1209. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Lin, L.; Zhang, L.; Li, C.; Gai, Z.; Li, Y. Vitamin D and Vitamin D Receptor: New Insights in the Treatment of Hypertension. Curr. Protein. Pept. Sci. 2019, 20, 984-995. [CrossRef]
  43. Tabas, I. 2016 Russell Ross Memorial Lecture in Vascular Biology: Molecular-Cellular Mechanisms in the Progression of Atherosclerosis. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2017, 37,183-189. [CrossRef]
  44. He, S.; Hao, X. The Effect of Vitamin D3 on Blood Pressure in People with Vitamin D Deficiency: A System Review and Meta-Analysis. Medicine 2019, 98, e15284. [CrossRef]
  45. Mirhosseini, N.; Vatanparast, H.; Kimball, S.M. The Association between Serum 25(Oh)D Status and Blood Pressure in Participants of a Community-Based Program Taking Vitamin D Supplements. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1244. [CrossRef]
  46. Hamrahian, S.M.; Falkner, B. Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2017, 956, 307-325. [PubMed]
  47. Jean, G.; Souberbielle, J.C.; Chazot, C. Vitamin D in Chronic Kidney Disease and Dialysis Patients. Nutrients 2017, 9, 328. [CrossRef]
  48. Adams, J.S.; Hewison, M. Extrarenal Expression of the 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-1-Hydroxylase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2012, 523, 95-102. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. Liu, W.C.; Wu, C.C.; Hung, Y.M.; Liao, M.T.; Shyu, J.F.; Lin, Y.F.; Lu, K.C.; Yeh, K.C. Pleiotropic Effects of Vitamin D in Chronic Kidney Disease. Clin. Chim. Acta 2016, 453,1-12. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. Lu, R.J.; Zhu, S.M.; Tang, F.L.; Zhu, X.S.; Fan, Z.D.; Wang, G.L.; Jiang, Y.F.; Zhang, Y. Effects of Vitamin D or Its Analogues on the Mortality of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2017, 71, 683-693. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. Molina, P.; Gorriz, J.L.; Molina, M.D.; Beltran, S.; Vizcaino, B.; Escudero, V.; Kanter, J.; Avila, A.I.; Bover, J.; Fernandez, E.; et al. What Is the Optimal Level of Vitamin D in Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Population? World J. Nephrol. 2016, 5, 471-481. [CrossRef]
  52. Zhu, M.; Wang, T.; Wang, C.; Ji, Y. The Association between Vitamin D and Copd Risk, Severity, and Exacerbation: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Chron. Obstr. Pulm. Dis. 2016,11, 2597-2607. [CrossRef]
  53. Jolliffe, D.A.; Greenberg, L.; Hooper, R.L.; Mathyssen, C.; Rafiq, R.; de Jongh, R.T.; Camargo, C.A.; Griffiths, C.J.; Janssens, W.; Martineau, A.R. Vitamin D to Prevent Exacerbations of Copd: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data from Randomised Controlled Trials. Thorax 2019, 74, 337-345. [CrossRef]
  54. Kokturk, N.; Baha, A.; Oh, Y.M.; Ju, J.Y.; Jones, P.W. Vitamin D Deficiency: What Does It Mean for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd)? A Compherensive Review for Pulmonologists. Clin. Respir. J. 2018, 12, 382-397. [CrossRef]
  55. Tao, S.; Zhang, H.; Xue, L.; Jiang, X.; Wang, H.; Li, B.; Tian, H.; Zhang, Z. Vitamin D Protects against Particles-Caused Lung Injury through Induction of Autophagy in an Nrf2-Dependent Manner. Environ. Toxicol. 2019, 34, 594-609. [CrossRef]
  56. Cannell, J.J.; Vieth, R.; Umhau, J.C.; Holick, M.F.; Grant, W.B.; Madronich, S.; Garland, C.F.; Giovannucci, E. Epidemic Influenza and Vitamin D. Epidemiol. Infect. 2006,134,1129-1140. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  57. Aloia, J.F.; Li-Ng, M. Re: Epidemic Influenza and Vitamin D. Epidemiol. Infect. 2007, 135, 1095-1096. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. Urashima, M.; Segawa, T.; Okazaki, M.; Kurihara, M.; Wada, Y.; Ida, H. Randomized Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Seasonal Influenza a in Schoolchildren. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2010, 91,1255-1260. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. Camargo, C.A., Jr.; Ganmaa, D.; Frazier, A.L.; Kirchberg, F.F.; Stuart, J.J.; Kleinman, K.; Sumberzul, N.; Rich-Edwards, J.W. Randomized Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation and Risk of Acute Respiratory Infection in Mongolia. Pediatrics 2012,130, e561-e567. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. Martineau, A.R.; Jolliffe, D.A.; Greenberg, L.; Aloia, J.F.; Bergman, P.; Dubnov-Raz, G.; Esposito, S.; Ganmaa, D.; Ginde, A.A.; Goodall, E.C.; et al. Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Acute Respiratory Infections: Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis. Health Technol. Assess. 2019, 23,1-44. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. Grant, W.B.; Giovannucci, E. The Possible Roles of Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Vitamin D in Reducing Case-Fatality Rates from the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic in the United States. Dermatoendocrinol 2009,1, 215-219. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. Mehta, S.; Mugusi, F.M.; Bosch, R.J.; Aboud, S.; Urassa, W.; Villamor, E.; Fawzi, W.W. Vitamin D Status and Tb Treatment Outcomes in Adult Patients in Tanzania: A Cohort Study. BMJ Open 2013, 3, e003703. [CrossRef]
  63. Ganmaa, D.; Munkhzul, B.; Fawzi, W.; Spiegelman, D.; Willett, W.C.; Bayasgalan, P.; Baasansuren, E.; Buyankhishig, B.; Oyun-Erdene, S.; Jolliffe, D.A.; et al. High-Dose Vitamin D3 During Tuberculosis Treatment in Mongolia. A Randomized Controlled Trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2017,196, 628-637. [CrossRef]
  64. Ganmaa, D.; Khudyakov, P.; Buyanjargal, U.; Baigal, D.; Baatar, M.; Enkhamgalan, N.; Erdenebaatar, S.; Ochirbat, B.; Burneebaatar, B.; Purevdorj, E.; et al. Risk Factors for Active Tuberculosis in 938 Quantiferon-Positive Schoolchildren in Mongolia__: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.
  65. BMC Infect. Dis. 2019,19, 532. [CrossRef]
  66. Chimed, T.; Sandagdorj, T.; Znaor, A.; Laversanne, M.; Tseveen, B.; Genden, P.; Bray, F. Cancer Incidence and Cancer Control in Mongolia: Results from the National Cancer Registry 2008-12. Int. J. Cancer 2017,140, 302-309. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  67. Moukayed, M.; Grant, W.B. The Roles of Uvb and Vitamin D in Reducing Risk of Cancer Incidence and Mortality: A Review of the Epidemiology, Clinical Trials, and Mechanisms. Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord. 2017, 18,167-182. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  68. Grant, W.B.; Boucher, B.J. Randomized Controlled Trials of Vitamin D and Cancer Incidence: A Modeling Study. PLoS ONE 2017,12, e0176448. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  69. McDonnell, S.L.; Baggerly, C.A.; French, C.B.; Baggerly, L.L.; Garland, C.F.; Gorham, E.D.; Hollis, B.W.; Trump, D.L.; Lappe, J.M. Breast Cancer Risk Markedly Lower with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations >/=60 Vs <20 Ng/Ml (150 Vs 50 Nmol/L): Pooled Analysis of Two Randomized Trials and a Prospective Cohort. PLoS ONE 2018,13, e0199265. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  70. McCullough, M.L.; Zoltick, E.S.; Weinstein, S.J.; Fedirko, V.; Wang, M.; Cook, N.R.; Eliassen, A.H.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Agnoli, C.; Albanes, D.; et al. Circulating Vitamin D and Colorectal Cancer Risk: An International Pooling Project of 17 Cohorts. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2019,111, 158-169. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  71. Zhang, Y.; Fang, F.; Tang, J.; Jia, L.; Feng, Y.; Xu, P.; Faramand, A. Association between Vitamin D Supplementation and Mortality: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. BMJ 2019, 366, l4673. [CrossRef]
  72. O'Sullivan, F.; Laird, E.; Kelly, D.; van Geffen, J.; van Weele, M.; McNulty, H.; Hoey, L.; Healy, M.; McCarroll, K.; Cunningham, C.; et al. Ambient Uvb Dose and Sun Enjoyment Are Important Predictors of Vitamin D Status in an Older Population. J. Nutr. 2017,147, 858-868. [CrossRef]
  73. Tran, B.; Lucas, R.; Kimlin, M.; Whiteman, D.; Neale, R. Association between Ambient Ultraviolet Radiation and Risk of Esophageal Cancer. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2012,107,1803-1813. [CrossRef]
  74. Du, C.; Yang, S.; Zhao, X.; Dong, H. Pathogenic Roles of Alterations in Vitamin D and Vitamin D Receptor in Gastric Tumorigenesis. Oncotarget 2017, 8, 29474-29486. [CrossRef]
  75. El Shahawy, M.S.; Hemida, M.H.; El Metwaly, I.; Shady, Z.M. The Effect of Vitamin D Deficiency on Eradication Rates of Helicobacter Pylori Infection. JGH Open 2018,2, 270-275. [CrossRef]
  76. Han, C.; Ni, Z.; Yuan, T.; Zhang, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, X.; Ning, H.B.; Liu, J.; Sun, N.; Liu, C.F.; et al. Influence of Serum Vitamin D Level on Helicobacter Pylori Eradication: A Multi-Center, Observational, Prospective and Cohort Study. J. Dig. Dis. 2019,20, 421-426. [CrossRef]
  77. Fedirko, V.; Duarte-Salles, T.; Bamia, C.; Trichopoulou, A.; Aleksandrova, K.; Trichopoulos, D.; Trepo, E.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; et al. Prediagnostic Circulating Vitamin D Levels and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in European Populations: A Nested Case-Control Study. Hepatology 2014, 60, 1222-1230. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  78. Manios, Y.; Moschonis, G.; Lambrinou, C.P.; Mavrogianni, C.; Tsirigoti, L.; Hoeller, U.; Roos, F.F.; Bendik, I.; Eggersdorfer, M.; Celis-Morales, C.; et al. Associations of Vitamin D Status with Dietary Intakes and Physical Activity Levels among Adults from Seven European Countries: The Food4me Study. Eur. J. Nutr. 2018, 57, 1357-1368. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  79. Budhathoki, S.; Hidaka, A.; Yamaji, T.; Sawada, N.; Tanaka-Mizuno, S.; Kuchiba, A.; Charvat, H.; Goto, A.; Kojima, S.; Sudo, N.; et al. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Subsequent Risk of Total and Site Specific Cancers in Japanese Population: Large Case-Cohort Study within Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Cohort. BMJ 2018, 360, k671. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  80. McDonnell, S.L.; Baggerly, C.; French, C.B.; Baggerly, L.L.; Garland, C.F.; Gorham, E.D.; Lappe, J.M.; Heaney, R.P. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations >/=40 Ng/Ml Are Associated with >65% Lower Cancer Risk: Pooled Analysis of Randomized Trial and Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS ONE 2016,11, e0152441. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  81. Grant, W.B.; Boucher, B.J. Why Secondary Analyses in Vitamin D Clinical Trials Are Important and How to Improve Vitamin D Clinical Trial Outcome Analyses—A Comment on "Extra-Skeletal Effects of Vitamin D, Nutrients 2019,11,1460". Nutrients 2019,11, 2182. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  82. Jazag, A.; Puntsagdulam, N.; Chinburen, J. Status Quo of Chronic Liver Diseases, Including Hepatocellular Carcinoma, in Mongolia. Korean J. Int. Med. 2012,27,121-127. [CrossRef]
  83. Kim, H.B.; Myung, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Park, B.J.; Group Korean Meta-Analysis Study. Efficacy of Vitamin D Supplementation in Combination with Conventional Antiviral Therapy in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 2018, 31, 168-177. [CrossRef]
  84. Jin, C.N.; Chen, J.D.; Sheng, J.F. Vitamin D Deficiency in Hepatitis C Virus Infection: What Is Old? What Is New? Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2018, 30, 741-746. [CrossRef]
  85. Hernandez-Alvarez, N.; Acevedo, J.M.P.; Quintero, E.; Vazquez, I.F.; Garcia-Eliz, M.; Negro, J.D.; Garcia, J.C.; Hernandez-Guerra, M. Effect of Season and Sunlight on Viral Kinetics During Hepatitis C Virus Therapy. BMJ Open Gastroenterol. 2017, 4, e000115. [CrossRef]
  86. Yang, F.; Ren, H.; Gao, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Huang, W. The Value of Severe Vitamin D Deficiency in Predicting the Mortality Risk of Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: A Meta-Analysis. Clin. Res. Hepatol. Gastroenterol. 2019. [CrossRef]
  87. Mosconi, L.; Murray, J.; Davies, M.; Williams, S.; Pirraglia, E.; Spector, N.; Tsui, W.H.; Li, Y.; Butler, T.; Osorio, R.S.; et al. Nutrient Intake and Brain Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease in at-Risk Cognitively Normal Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Neuroimaging Pilot Study. BMJ Open 2014, 4, e004850. [CrossRef]
  88. Grant, W.B. Using Multicountry Ecological and Observational Studies to Determine Dietary Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 2016, 35,476-489. [CrossRef]
  89. Huriletemuer, H.; Wen, S.; Zhang, C.; Zhao, S.; Niu, G.; Wang, B.; Ma, X.; Wang, D. An Epidemiological Study of Alzheimer's Disease in Elderly Mongolian and Han Populations Living in Rural Areas of Inner Mongolia. Aging Clin. Exp. Res. 2011, 23, 470-475. [CrossRef]
  90. Feart, C.; Helmer, C.; Merle, B.; Herrmann, F.R.; Annweiler, C.; Dartigues, J.F.; Delcourt, C.; Samieri, C. Associations of Lower Vitamin D Concentrations with Cognitive Decline and Long-Term Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease in Older Adults. Alzheimers Dement. 2017,13,1207-1216. [CrossRef]
  91. Liu, J.; Greenfield, H.; Strobel, N.; Fraser, D.R. The Influence of Latitude on the Concentration of Vitamin D3 and 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D3 in Australian Red Meat. Food Chem. 2013,140, 432-435. [CrossRef]
  92. Calderon-Garciduenas, L.; Franco-Lira, M.; D'Angiulli, A.; Rodriguez-Diaz, J.; Blaurock-Busch, E.; Busch, Y.; Chao, C.K.; Thompson, C.; Mukherjee, P.S.; Torres-Jardon, R.; et al. Mexico City Normal Weight Children Exposed to High Concentrations of Ambient Pm2.5 Show High Blood Leptin and Endothelin-1, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Food Reward Hormone Dysregulation Versus Low Pollution Controls. Relevance for Obesity and Alzheimer Disease. Environ. Res. 2015,140, 579-592.
  93. Manousaki, D.; Mokry, L.E.; Ross, S.; Goltzman, D.; Richards, J.B. Mendelian Randomization Studies Do Not Support a Role for Vitamin D in Coronary Artery Disease. Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 2016, 9, 349-356. [CrossRef]
  94. Dursun, E.; Gezen-Ak, D. Vitamin D Basis of Alzheimer's Disease: From Genetics to Biomarkers. Hormones 2019,18, 7-15. [CrossRef]
  95. Enkhmaa, D.; Warburton, N.; Javzandulam, B.; Uyanga, J.; Khishigsuren, Y.; Lodoysamba, S.; Enkhtur, S.; Warburton, D. Seasonal Ambient Air Pollution Correlates Strongly with Spontaneous Abortion in Mongolia. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2014,14,146. [CrossRef]
  96. Bove, H.; Bongaerts, E.; Slenders, E.; Bijnens, E.M.; Saenen, N.D.; Gyselaers, W.; van Eyken, P.; Plusquin, M.; Roeffaers, M.B.J.; Ameloot, M.; et al. Ambient Black Carbon Particles Reach the Fetal Side of Human Placenta. Nat. Commun. 2019,10, 3866. [CrossRef]
  97. Momentti, A.C.; Estadella, D.; Pisani, L.P. Role of Vitamin D in Pregnancy and Toll-Like Receptor Pathway. Steroids 2018,137, 22-29. [CrossRef]
  98. Hou, W.; Yan, X.T.; Bai, C.M.; Zhang, X.W.; Hui, L.Y.; Yu, X.W. Decreased Serum Vitamin D Levels in Early Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2016, 70,1004-1008. [CrossRef]
  99. Karras, S.N.; Polyzos, S.A.; Newton, D.A.; Wagner, C.L.; Hollis, B.W.; Ouweland, J.V.D.; Dursun, E.; Gezen-Ak, D.; Kotsa, K.; Annweiler, C.; et al. Adiponectin and Vitamin D-Binding Protein Are Independently Associated at Birth in Both Mothers and Neonates. Endocrine 2018, 59,164-174. [CrossRef]
  100. Luxwolda, M.F.; Kuipers, R.S.; Kema, I.P.; Dijck-Brouwer, D.A.; Muskiet, F.A. Traditionally Living Populations in East Africa Have a Mean Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration of 115 Nmol/L. Br. J. Nutr. 2012,108, 1557-1561. [CrossRef]
  101. Shen, Y.; Pu, L.; Si, S.; Xin, X.; Mo, M.; Shao, B.; Wu, J.; Huang, M.; Wang, S.; Muyiduli, X.; et al. Vitamin D Nutrient Status During Pregnancy and Its Influencing Factors. Clin. Nutr. 2019. [CrossRef]
  102. Marchand, N.E.; Davaasambuu, G.; McElrath, T.F.; Davaasambuu, E.; Baatar, T.; Troisi, R. Prevalence of Pregnancy Hypertensive Disorders in Mongolia. Pregnancy Hypertens 2016, 6, 413-417. [CrossRef]
  103. Bilano, V.L.; Ota, E.; Ganchimeg, T.; Mori, R.; Souza, J.P. Risk Factors of Pre-Eclampsia/Eclampsia and Its Adverse Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Who Secondary Analysis. PLoS ONE 2014, 9, e91198. [CrossRef]
  104. Morisaki, N.; Ganchimeg, T.; Vogel, J.P.; Zeitlin, J.; Cecatti, J.G.; Souza, J.P.; Castro, C.P.; Torloni, M.R.; Ota, E.; Mori, R.; et al. Research Network the. Impact of Stillbirths on International Comparisons of Preterm Birth Rates: A Secondary Analysis of the Who Multi-Country Survey of Maternal and Newborn Health. BJOG 2017,124,1346-1354. [CrossRef]
  105. McDonnell, S.L.; Baggerly, K.A.; Baggerly, C.A.; Aliano, J.L.; French, C.B.; Baggerly, L.L.; Ebeling, M.D.; Rittenberg, C.S.; Goodier, C.G.; Nino, J.F.M.; et al. Maternal 25(Oh)D Concentrations >/=40 Ng/Ml Associated with 60% Lower Preterm Birth Risk among General Obstetrical Patients at an Urban Medical Center. PLoS ONE 2017,12, e0180483. [CrossRef]
  106. Xia, J.; Song, Y.; Rawal, S.; Wu, J.; Hinkle, S.N.; Tsai, M.Y.; Zhang, C. Vitamin D Status During Pregnancy and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Longitudinal Study in a Multiracial Cohort. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 2019, 21,1895-1905. [CrossRef]
  107. Jamilian, M.; Mirhosseini, N.; Eslahi, M.; Bahmani, F.; Shokrpour, M.; Chamani, M.; Asemi, Z. The Effects of Magnesium-Zinc-Calcium-Vitamin D Co-Supplementation on Biomarkers of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Pregnancy Outcomes in Gestational Diabetes. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019,19,107. [CrossRef]
  108. Enkhmaa, D.; Tanz, L.; Ganmaa, D.; Enkhtur, S.; Oyun-Erdene, B.; Stuart, J.; Chen, G.; Carr, A.; Seely, E.W.; Fitzmaurice, G.; et al. Randomized Trial of Three Doses of Vitamin D to Reduce Deficiency in Pregnant Mongolian Women. EBioMedicine 2019, 39, 510-519. [CrossRef]
  109. Mellanby, M.; Pattison, C.L. The Action of Vitamin D in Preventing the Spread and Promoting the Arrest of Caries in Children. Br. Med. J. 1928, 2,1079-1082. [CrossRef]
  110. Grant, W.B. A Review of the Role of Solar Ultraviolet-B Irradiance and Vitamin D in Reducing Risk of Dental Caries. Dermatoendocrinol 2011, 3,193-198. [CrossRef]
  111. Van Nieuw Amerongen, A.; Bolscher, J.G.; Veerman, E.C. Salivary Proteins: Protective and Diagnostic Value in Cariology? Caries. Res. 2004, 38, 247-253. [CrossRef]
  112. Liu, P.T.; Stenger, S.; Li, H.; Wenzel, L.; Tan, B.H.; Krutzik, S.R.; Ochoa, M.T.; Schauber, J.; Wu, K.; Meinken, C.; et al. Toll-Like Receptor Triggering of a Vitamin D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Response. Science 2006, 311,1770-1773. [CrossRef]
  113. Hujoel, P.P. Vitamin D and Dental Caries in Controlled Clinical Trials: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutr. Rev. 2013, 71, 88-97. [CrossRef]
  114. Gyll, J.; Ridell, K.; Ohlund, I.; Akeson, P.K.; Johansson, I.; Holgerson, P.L. Vitamin D Status and Dental Caries in Healthy Swedish Children. Nutr. J. 2018,17,11. [CrossRef]
  115. Grant, W.B.; Boucher, B.J. Are Hill's Criteria for Causality Satisfied for Vitamin D and Periodontal Disease? Dermatoendocrinol 2010, 2, 30-36. [CrossRef]
  116. Khammissa, R.A.G.; Ballyram, R.; Jadwat, Y.; Fourie, J.; Lemmer, J.; Feller, L. Vitamin D Deficiency as It Relates to Oral Immunity and Chronic Periodontitis. Int. J. Dent. 2018, 2018, 7315797. [CrossRef]
  117. Jagelaviciene, E.; Vaitkeviciene, I.; Silingaite, D.; Sinkunaite, E.; Daugelaite, G. The Relationship between Vitamin D and Periodontal Pathology. Medicina 2018, 54, 45. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  118. Adegboye, A.R.; Boucher, B.J.; Kongstad, J.; Fiehn, N.E.; Christensen, L.B.; Heitmann, B.L. Calcium, Vitamin D, Casein and Whey Protein Intakes and Periodontitis among Danish Adults. Public Health Nutr. 2016, 19, 503-510. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  119. Aspelund, T.; Grubler, M.R.; Smith, A.V.; Gudmundsson, E.F.; Keppel, M.; Cotch, M.F.; Harris, T.B.; Jorde, R.; Grimnes, G.; Joakimsen, R.; et al. Effect of Genetically Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D on Mortality Risk: Mendelian Randomization Analysis in 3 Large European Cohorts. Nutrients 2019, 11, 74. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  120. Mao, C.; Li, F.R.; Yin, Z.X.; Lv, Y.B.; Luo, J.S.; Yuan, J.Q.; Mhungu, F.; Wang, J.N.; Shi, W.Y.; Zhou, J.H.; et al. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause Mortality among a Prospective Cohort of Chinese Adults Aged >/=80 Years. J. Nutr. 2019,149,1056-1064. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  121. Lindqvist, P.G.; Epstein, E.; Nielsen, K.; Landin-Olsson, M.; Ingvar, C.; Olsson, H. Avoidance of Sun Exposure as a Risk Factor for Major Causes of Death: A Competing Risk Analysis of the Melanoma in Southern Sweden Cohort. J. Int. Med. 2016, 280, 375-387. [CrossRef]
  122. Grant, W.B. An Estimate of the Global Reduction in Mortality Rates through Doubling Vitamin D Levels. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2011, 65,1016-1026. [CrossRef]
  123. Grant, W.B.; Whiting, S.J.; Schwalfenberg, G.K.; Genuis, S.J.; Kimball, S.M. Estimated Economic Benefit of Increasing 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations of Canadians to or above 100 Nmol/L. Dermatoendocrinol 2016, 8, e1248324. [CrossRef]
  124. Autier, P.; Boniol, M.; Pizot, C.; Mullie, P. Vitamin D Status and Ill Health: A Systematic Review. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014, 2, 76-89. [CrossRef]
  125. Theodoratou, E.; Tzoulaki, I.; Zgaga, L.; Ioannidis, J.P. Vitamin D and Multiple Health Outcomes: Umbrella Review of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies and Randomised Trials. BMJ 2014, 348, g2035. [CrossRef]
  126. Christakos, S.; Dhawan, P.; Verstuyf, A.; Verlinden, L.; Carmeliet, G. Vitamin D: Metabolism, Molecular Mechanism of Action, and Pleiotropic Effects. Physiol. Rev. 2016, 96, 365-408. [CrossRef]
  127. Haussler, M.R.; Whitfield, G.K.; Kaneko, I.; Haussler, C.A.; Hsieh, D.; Hsieh, J.C.; Jurutka, P.W. Molecular Mechanisms of Vitamin D Action. Calcif. Tissue Int. 2013, 92,77-98. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  128. Zhang, R.; Li, B.; Gao, X.; Tian, R.; Pan, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Gu, H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, G. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2017,105, 810-819. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  129. Littlejohns, T.J.; Henley,W.E.; Lang, I.A.; Annweiler, C.; Beauchet, O.; Chaves, P.H.; Fried, L.; Kestenbaum, B.R.; Kuller, L.H.; Langa, K.M.; et al. Vitamin D and the Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer Disease. Neurology 2014, 83, 920-928. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  130. Faerk, G.; Colak, Y.; Afzal, S.; Nordestgaard, B.G. Low Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Long-Term Prognosis of Copd: A Prospective Cohort Study. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2018, 33, 567-577. [CrossRef]
  131. Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A. Vitamin D and Fracture Prevention. Rheum. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 2012, 38, 107-113. [CrossRef]
  132. Wolman, R.; Wyon, M.A.; Koutedakis, Y.; Nevill, A.M.; Eastell, R.; Allen, N. Vitamin D Status in Professional Ballet Dancers: Winter Vs. Summer. J. Sci. Med. Sport 2013,16,388-391. [CrossRef]
  133. Godar, D.E.; Pope, S.J.; Grant, W.B.; Holick, M.F. Solar Uv Doses of Adult Americans and Vitamin D(3) Production. Dermatoendocrinol 2011, 3, 243-250. [CrossRef]
  134. Hill, L.D.; Edwards, R.; Turner, J.R.; Argo, Y.D.; Olkhanud, P.B.; Odsuren, M.; Guttikunda, S.; Ochir, C.; Smith, K.R. Health Assessment of Future Pm2.5 Exposures from Indoor, Outdoor, and Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Concentrations under Alternative Policy Pathways in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. PLoS ONE 2017,12, e0186834. [CrossRef]
  135. Burnett, A.; Davey, C.G.; Wood, S.J.; Wilson-Ching, M.; Molloy, C.; Cheong, J.L.; Doyle, L.W.; Anderson, P.J. Extremely Preterm Birth and Adolescent Mental Health in a Geographical Cohort Born in the 1990s. Psychol. Med. 2014, 44,1533-1544. [CrossRef]
  136. Alberg, A.J.; Shopland, D.R.; Cummings, K.M. The 2014 Surgeon General's Report: Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the 1964 Report of the Advisory Committee to the Us Surgeon General and Updating the Evidence on the Health Consequences of Cigarette Smoking. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2014,179,403-412. [CrossRef]
  137. Lee, H.; Kim, K.N.; Lim, Y.H.; Hong, Y.C. Interaction of Vitamin D and Smoking on Inflammatory Markers in the Urban Elderly. J. Prev. Med. Public Health 2015, 48, 249-256. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  138. Dodds, L.; Woolcott, C.G.; Weiler, H.; Spencer, A.; Forest, J.C.; Armson, B.A.; Giguere, Y. Vitamin D Status and Gestational Diabetes: Effect of Smoking Status During Pregnancy. Paediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol. 2016, 30, 229-237. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  139. Heaney, R.P. Guidelines for Optimizing Design and Analysis of Clinical Studies of Nutrient Effects. Nutr. Rev. 2014, 72, 48-54. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  140. Grant, W.B.; Boucher, B.J.; Bhattoa, H.P.; Lahore, H. Why Vitamin D Clinical Trials Should Be Based on 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2018,177, 266-269. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  141. Grant, W.B. Effect of Follow-up Time on the Relation between Prediagnostic Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and All-Cause Mortality Rate. Dermatoendocrinol 2012, 4,198-202. [CrossRef]
  142. Grant, W.B. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Breast Cancer, Colorectal Cancer, and Colorectal Adenomas: Case-Control Versus Nested Case-Control Studies. Anticancer Res. 2015, 35,1153-1160.
  143. Crowe, F.L.; Steur, M.; Allen, N.E.; Appleby, P.N.; Travis, R.C.; Key, T.J. Plasma Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans: Results from the Epic-Oxford Study. Public Health Nutr. 2011,14, 340-346. [CrossRef]
  144. Liu, J.; Arcot, J.; Cunningham, J.; Greenfield, H.; Hsu, J.; Padula, D.; Strobel, N.; Fraser, D.R. New Data for Vitamin D in Australian Foods of Animal Origin: Impact on Estimates of National Adult Vitamin D Intakes in 1995 and 2011-13. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 2015, 24, 464-471.
  145. Heaney, R.P.; Davies, K.M.; Chen, T.C.; Holick, M.F.; Barger-Lux, M.J. Human Serum 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Response to Extended Oral Dosing with Cholecalciferol. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2003, 77, 204-210. [CrossRef]
  146. Pludowski, P.; Holick, M.F.; Grant, W.B.; Konstantynowicz, J.; Mascarenhas, M.R.; Haq, A.; Povoroznyuk, V.; Balatska, N.; Barbosa, A.P.; Karonova, T.; et al. Vitamin D Supplementation Guidelines. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2018,175,125-135. [CrossRef]
  147. De Pergola, G.; Martino, T.; Zupo, R.; Caccavo, D.; Pecorella, C.; Paradiso, S.; Silvestris, F.; Triggiani, V. 25 Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Are Negatively and Independently Associated with Fat Mass in a Cohort of Healthy Overweight and Obese Subjects. Endocr. Metab. Immune Disord. Drug. Targets 2019,19,838-844. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  148. Drincic, A.T.; Armas, L.A.; van Diest, E.E.; Heaney, R.P. Volumetric Dilution, Rather Than Sequestration Best Explains the Low Vitamin D Status of Obesity. Obesity 2012,20,1444-1448. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  149. Ross, A.C.; Manson, J.E.; Abrams, S.A.; Aloia, J.F.; Brannon, P.M.; Clinton, S.K.; Durazo-Arvizu, R.A.; Gallagher, J.C.; Gallo, R.L.; Jones, G.; et al. The 2011 Report on Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: What Clinicians Need to Know. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2011, 96, 53-58. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  150. Holick, M.F.; Binkley, N.C.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A.; Gordon, C.M.; Hanley, D.A.; Heaney, R.P.; Murad, M.H.; Weaver, C.M. Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2011, 96,1911-1930. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  151. Holick, M.F. The Underappreciated D-Lightful Hormone That Is Important for Skeletal and Cellular Health. Curr. Opin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 2002, 9, 87-98. [CrossRef]
  152. Grant, W.B.; Karras, S.N.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A.; Annweiler, C.; Boucher, B.J.; Juzeniene, A.; Garland, C.F.; Holick, M.F. Do Studies Reporting 'U'-Shaped Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-Health Outcome Relationships Reflect Adverse Effects? Dermatoendocrinol 2016, 8, e1187349. [CrossRef]
  153. Pilz, S.; Marz, W.; Cashman, K.D.; Kiely, M.E.; Whiting, S.J.; Holick, M.F.; Grant, W.B.; Pludowski, P.; Hiligsmann, M.; Trummer, C.; et al. Rationale and Plan for Vitamin D Food Fortification: A Review and Guidance Paper. Front. Endocrinol. 2018, 9, 373. [CrossRef]
  154. Jaaskelainen, T.; Itkonen, S.T.; Lundqvist, A.; Erkkola, M.; Koskela, T.; Lakkala, K.; Dowling, K.G.; Hull, G.L.; Kroger, H.; Karppinen, J.; et al. The Positive Impact of General Vitamin D Food Fortification Policy on Vitamin D Status in a Representative Adult Finnish Population: Evidence from an 11-Y Follow-up Based on Standardized 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Data. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2017,105,1512-1520. [CrossRef]
  155. Roth, D.E.; Abrams, S.A.; Aloia, J.; Bergeron, G.; Bourassa, M.W.; Brown, K.H.; Calvo, M.S.; Cashman, K.D.; Combs, G.; De-Regil, L.M.; et al. Global Prevalence and Disease Burden of Vitamin D Deficiency: A Roadmap for Action in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2018,1430,44-79. [CrossRef]
  156. Cashman, K.D.; O'Dea, R. Exploration of Strategic Food Vehicles for Vitamin D Fortification in Low/Lower-Middle Income Countries. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2019,195,105479. [CrossRef]
  157. Aguiar, M.; Andronis, L.; Pallan, M.; Hogler, W.; Frew, E. The Economic Case for Prevention of Population Vitamin D Deficiency: A Modelling Study Using Data from England and Wales. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2019. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  158. Bates, B.; Lennox, A.; Prentice, A.; Bates, C.; Page, P.; Nicholson, S. National Diet and Nutrition Survey Results from Years 5 and 6 (Combined) of the Rolling Programme (2012/2013-2013/2014); Public Health: London, UK, 2016.
  159. O'Neill, C.M.; Kazantzidis, A.; Kiely, M.; Cox, L.; Meadows, S.; Goldberg, G.; Prentice, A.; Kift, R.; Webb, A.R.; Cashman, K.D. A Predictive Model of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Uk White as Well as Black and Asian Minority Ethnic Population Groups for Application in Food Fortification Strategy Development Towards Vitamin D Deficiency Prevention. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2017,173, 245-252. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  160. Bromage, S.; Ganmaa, D.; Rich-Edwards, J.W.; Rosner, B.; Bater, J.; Fawzi, W.W. Projected Effectiveness of Mandatory Industrial Fortification of Wheat Flour, Milk, and Edible Oil with Multiple Micronutrients among Mongolian Adults. PLoS ONE 2018,13, e0201230. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  161. Bromage, S.; Gonchigsumlaa, E.; Traeger, M.; Magsar, B.; Wang, Q.; Bater, J.; Li, H.; Ganmaa, D. Awareness and Attitudes Regarding Industrial Food Fortification in Mongolia and Harbin. Nutrients 2019, 11, 201. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Created by admin. Last Modification: Sunday February 28, 2021 14:45:21 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 20)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
12792 TB VDR.jpg admin 14 Oct, 2019 53.08 Kb 553
12791 TB Mongolia.jpg admin 14 Oct, 2019 29.64 Kb 736
12790 Mongolia reduction.jpg admin 14 Oct, 2019 93.79 Kb 789
12789 Mongolia Grant.pdf admin 14 Oct, 2019 311.44 Kb 556