Investigation of Long COVID Prevalence and Its Relationship to Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060763
by Jeffrey E. Gold 1, jeff_gold at world.org ,Ramazan A. Okyay 2,Warren E. Licht 3 and David J. Hurley 4
1 World Organization, Watkinsville, GA 30677, USA
2 Department of Public Health, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş 46040, Turkey
3 Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
4 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Fact Epstein-Barr Virus is strongly related to Multiple Sclerosis
Fact Multiple Sclerosis is extinguished by high-dose vitamin D
Fact Symptoms come and go with BOTH Long-Haul and Multiple Sclerosis
Perhaps Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is associated with Epstein-Barr Virus Sept 2020
Possibility Long Haul will be extinguished by high-dose Vitamin D.
Vitamin D Receptor activator such as Resveratrol may also be needed
Table of contents
- See also Long-Haul EBV on the web
- VitaminDWiki pages containing EPSTEIN in title
- VitaminDWiki pages containing LONG-HAUL in the titles
- VitaminDWiki pages in both categories Virus and Vitamin D Receptor
- Many ways to increase Receptor activation and get more vitamin D to cells
- Comment on Long-Haul COVID and virus such as EBV - Aug 27, 2021
- Could the 'Mono' Virus Be Driving Long-Haul COVID? WebMD June 30, 2021
- "Two-thirds of a group of 30 COVID long-haul patients had high levels of Epstein-Barr antibodies, suggesting that EBV lying dormant in their bodies had been reactivated by their coronavirus infection, researchers reported."
- Evidence of Epstein Barr Virus Reactivation in Long COVID Patients Dr. Been video 27 minutes Aug 3, 2021
- Long COVID in Kids: The New Mono? Aug 19, 2021
- "Mononucleosis was nicknamed the kissing disease for one simple reason: college students, most at risk for developing this infection, presumably spend massive amounts of time sharing germs with their friends."
- "While most people recover in two weeks with rest and fluids, the virus that causes mono, Epstein Barr (EBV), is also associated with a chronic inflammatory and painful condition called myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Also known as Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), this syndrome has itself been compared to Long COVID.4 "
- "And the list goes on. Through a protein on the virus, EBV has also been identified as a common infectious activator or trigger of several autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and celiac disease.5"
- Long COVID may be the result of Epstein-Barr virus reactivating in many patients Aug 18, 2021
- Reporting on the Pathogens study on this page
This list is automatically updated
- COVID-19 outpatients getting Quercetin nanoemulsion had excellent outcomes (Q increased Vitamin D in cells) – RCT – June 2021
- A virus that most adults have (Cytomegalovirus) decreases the amount of Vitamin D which gets to the cells – Jan 2017
- SARS-CoV-2 virus alters the activation of over 100 vitamin D related genes in the lung – April 2021
- Common sense COVID-19 risk reduction - masks, social distancing, vitamin D - Oct 2020
- AI is examining 170,000 potential COVID-19 treatments, Vitamin D is one of only 6 found – Sept 4, 2020
- Vitamin D Receptor activation should reduce ARDS associated with COVID-19 - June 2020
- Dengue viral production decreased 1000X if activate Vitamin D Receptor (in lab) – July 2020
- Vitamin D, Quercetin, and Estradiol all increase vitamin D in cells and increase genes which reduce COVID-19 – May 21, 2020
- Quercetin and Vitamin D - Allies Against COVID-19
- Risk of enveloped virus infection is increased 50 percent if poor Vitamin D Receptor - meta-analysis Dec 2018
- Hand, foot, and Mouth disease is 14X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Oct 2019
- Treating herpes reduced incidence of senile dementia by 10 X (HSV1 reduces VDR by 8X) – 2018
- Severe hand, foot, and mouth virus is 2.9 X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor – Oct 2018
- Hepatitis B virus reduced by 5X the Vitamin D getting to liver cells in the lab – Oct 2018
- Some enveloped virus are 1.2 X more likely if have a poor Vitamin D Receptor -Aug 2018
- Severe Pertussis is 1.5 times more likely if poor vitamin D receptor – Feb 2016
- Dengue Fever associated with poor vitamin D receptor – July 2002
- Dengue virus 2X to 4X more likely if vitamin D receptor gene problems
Vitamin D Receptor activation can be increased by any of: Resveratrol, Omega-3, Magnesium, Zinc, Quercetin, non-daily Vit D, Curcumin, intense exercise, Ginger, Essential oils, etc Note: The founder of VitaminDWiki uses 10 of the 13 known VDR activators
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients sometimes experience long-term symptoms following resolution of acute disease, including fatigue, brain fog, and rashes. Collectively these have become known as long COVID. Our aim was to first determine long COVID prevalence in 185 randomly surveyed COVID-19 patients and, subsequently, to determine if there was an association between occurrence of long COVID symptoms and reactivation of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in 68 COVID-19 patients recruited from those surveyed. We found the prevalence of long COVID symptoms to be 30.3% (56/185), which included 4 initially asymptomatic COVID-19 patients who later developed long COVID symptoms. Next, we found that 66.7% (20/30) of long COVID subjects versus 10% (2/20) of control subjects in our primary study group were positive for EBV reactivation based on positive titers for EBV early antigen-diffuse (EA-D) IgG or EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM. The difference was significant (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test). A similar ratio was observed in a secondary group of 18 subjects 21–90 days after testing positive for COVID-19, indicating reactivation may occur soon after or concurrently with COVID-19 infection. These findings suggest that many long COVID symptoms may not be a direct result of the SARS-CoV-2 virus but may be the result of COVID-19 inflammation-induced EBV reactivation.
COVID-19 significantly impair the immune system, including its regulation. SARS-CoV-2 infections in persons with vitamin D deficiency is subjected to a double whammy.
Postmortem sample indicates that SARS.CoV-2 is present within brain tissues and in endocrine organs. Resultant significant immune dysfunction causes enhance viral replication and dissemination, and autoimmunity, and activating "dormant" microbes. The latter include activation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV; Infectious mononucleosis) its complications like thrombocytopenic purpura, and intracellular bacteria, like tuberculosis.
The post-Covid syndrome is likely to cause by SARS-CoV-2 and/or EBV, and other dormant viruses. At present, its natural history, duration, and the optimal way to treat it are unknown. Nevertheless, maintaining serum 25(OH)D above 50 ng/mL seem to prevent this syndrome and supplementing vitamin D expedites the recovery following post-COVID syndrome. It is likely due to restoring the robust immune system).
Moreover, the efficacy of vaccines is enhanced with vitamin D adequacy. Therefore, administering a one-time high dose of oral vitamin D (e.g., 200,000 IU), as we have advocated since January 2021, is a sensible measure to enhance the acquired immunity and avoid a third booster dose. Prevention is better than cure.
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