Adulthood residential ultraviolet radiation, sun sensitivity, dietary vitamin D, and risk of lymphoid malignancies in the California Teachers Study
Ellen T. Chang1,2; Alison J. Canchola1; Myles Cockburn3; Yani Lu4; Sophia S. Wang4; Leslie Bernstein4; Christina A. Clarke1,2; and Pamela L. Horn-Ross1,2
1 Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, CA;
2 Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA;
3 Division of Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA; and
4 Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population Sciences, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA
To lend clarity to inconsistent prior findings of an inverse association between ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and risk of lymphoid malignancies, we examined the association of prospectively ascertained residential ambient UVR exposure with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), multiple myeloma (MM), and classical Hodgkin lymphoma in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Among 121 216 eligible women, 629 were diagnosed with NHL, 119 with MM, and 38 with Hodgkin lymphoma between 1995-1996 and 2007.
Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Residential UVR levels within a 20-km radius were associated with reduced risk of overall NHL (RR for highest vs lowest statewide quartile of minimum UVR ? 5100 vs < 4915 W-h/m2, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.80), especially diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (RR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.17-0.78) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (RR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.21-1.01), and MM (RR for maximum UVR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.90). These associations were not modified by skin sensitivity to sunlight, race/ethnicity, body mass index, or neighborhood socioeconomic status.
Dietary vitamin D also was not associated with risk of lymphoid malignanciesThese results support a protective effect of routine residential UVR exposure against lymphomagenesis through mechanisms possibly independent of vitamin D.
Submitted February 9, 2011; Accepted May 14, 2011
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42% – non-Hodgkin lymphomas – overall
64% – especially diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
54% – chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma
43% – multiple myeloma
VitaminDWiki suspects no association of lymph problems with vitamin D because the study participants did had enough to make a difference
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