Global Perspective of the Vitamin D Status of African-Caribbean Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2021)
Rebecca M. Vearing, Kathryn H. Hart, Andrea L. Darling, Yasmine Probst, Aminat S. Olayinka, Jeewaka Mendis, Helena Ribeiro, Siddhartha Thakur, Marcela Mendes, Karen Charlton & Susan A. Lanham-New
Note: Approximately half of a population will have vitamin D levels less than the dot
Analysis does not appear to include Cuba, Hati, Dominican Republic, etc.
Deficiency of Vitamin D category starts with the following
- Many reasons why vitamin D deficiency has become epidemic
- 22 of the 38 reasons are recent
- Overview Deficiency of vitamin D
- Vitamin D levels are dropping rapidly – what you need to do
- Update Reasons for Low Vitamin D and what to do with a concise table
- Air Pollution reduces Vitamin D
- Smoking reduces vitamin D 33 studies as of Oct 2019
- Low Vitamin D is worse for your health than smoking
- Many categories of people are at High Risk of low vitamin D -
- 26 health factors increase the risk of COVID-19 – all are associated with low vitamin D
Overview Dark Skin and Vitamin D contains the following summary
FACT - - People with dark skins have more health problems and higher mortality rate than those with light skins
FACT - - People with dark skins have low levels of vitamin D
FACT - - People with light skins who have low vitamin D have health problems
OBSERVATION - - The health problems of whites with low level of vitamin D are similar to those with dark skins
CONCLUSION - - People with dark skins have more health problems due to low levels of vitamin D
Low Vitamin D increases health problems - independent of skin color
Vitamin D deficiency remains a global public health issue, particularly in minority ethnic groups. This review investigates the vitamin D status (as measured by 25(OH)D and dietary intake) of the African-Caribbean population globally.
A systematic review was conducted by searching key databases (PUBMED, Web of Science, Scopus) from inception until October 2019. Search terms included ‘Vitamin D status’ and ‘African-Caribbean’. A random effects and fixed effects meta-analysis was performed by combining means and standard error of the mean.
The search yielded 19 papers that included n = 5670 African-Caribbean participants from six countries. A meta-analysis found this population to have sufficient (>50 nmol/L) 25(OH)D levels at 67.8 nmol/L, 95% CI (57.9, 7.6) but poor dietary intake of vitamin D at only 3.0 µg/day, 95% CI (1.67,4.31). For those living at low latitudes ‘insufficient’ (as defined by study authors) 25(OH)D levels were found only in participants with type 2 diabetes and in those undergoing haemodialysis. Suboptimal dietary vitamin D intake (according to the UK recommended nutrient intake of 10 µg/day) was reported in all studies at high latitudes. Studies at lower latitudes, with lower recommended dietary intakes (Caribbean recommended dietary intake: 2.5 µg/day) found ‘sufficient’ intake in two out of three studies.
25(OH)D sufficiency was found in African-Caribbean populations at lower latitudes. However, at higher latitudes, 25(OH)D deficiency and low dietary vitamin D intake was prevalent.This page is in the following categories (# of items in each category)Deficiency of Vitamin D
392 Meta-analysis of Vitamin D 518