- Third study found that Infants needed 1600 IU of vitamin D – JAMA RCT May 2013
- Vitamin D needed to get children to just 20 ng in winter 800 IU white skin, 1100 IU dark (Sweden) – RCT June 2017
- Preemies need 1,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Sept 2017
- 2,000 IU of vitamin D reduced schizophrenia chance by 77 percent (male infants) - 2004
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (EFSA NDA Panel)
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to revise the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for vitamin D for infants (< 1 year) set in 2012. From its literature review, the Panel concluded that the available evidence on daily vitamin D intake and the risk of adverse health outcomes (hypercalciuria, hypercalcaemia, nephrocalcinosis and abnormal growth patterns) cannot be used alone for deriving the UL for infants. The Panel conducted a meta-regression analysis of collected data, to derive a dose-response relationship between daily supplemental intake of vitamin D and mean achieved serum 25(OH)d concentrations. Considering that a serum 25(OH)D concentration of 200 nmol/L or below is unlikely to pose a risk of adverse health outcomes in infants, the Panel estimated the percentage of infants reaching a concentration above this value at different intakes of vitamin D. Based on the overall evidence, the Panel kept the UL of 25 ug/day for infants aged up to 6 months and set a UL of 35 ug/day for infants 6-12 months.
The Panel was also asked to advise on the safety of the consumption of infant formulae with an increased maximum vitamin D content of 3 ug/100 kcal (Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/127 repealing Directive 2006/141/EC in 2020). For infants aged up to 4 months, the intake assessment showed that the use of infant formulae containing vitamin D at 3 ug/100 kcal may lead some infants to receive an intake above the UL of 25 ug/day from formulae alone without considering vitamin D supplemental intake. For infants aged 4-12 months, the 95th percentile of vitamin D intake (high consumers) estimated from formulae and foods fortified or not with vitamin D does not exceed the ULs, without considering vitamin D supplemental intake.