Characterizing neonatal vitamin D deficiency in the modern era: a maternal-neonatal birth cohort from Southern Europe.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Nov 26:105555. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105555.
Karras SN1, Koufakis T2, Antonopoulou V2, Goulis DG3, Annweiler C4, Pilz S5, Bili H3, Naughton DP6, Shah I7, Harizopoulou V3, Zebekakis P2, Bais A8, Kotsa K2.
- Children 41X more likely to be vitamin D deficient if both parents were deficient – Dec 2018
- Effects of low vitamin D on pregnancy and neonate – review Jan 2015
- Leading cause of death age 0-5 – vitamin D deficiency
Study also found that alcohol increased the risk of Vitamin D Deficiency by 5.6 X
Absence of adequate maternal vitamin D supplementation and decreased maternal ultraviolet exposure during pregnancy are key determinants for the manifestation of neonatal hypovitaminosis D at birth. These parameters may vary, according to country-specific dietary patterns, health policies and sunshine exposure. We aimed to investigate differences in calcium metabolism and anthropometric profiles according to neonatal vitamin D status at birth, in a sunny region of Northern Greece. A secondary aim was to identify maternal parameters as risk factors for developing neonatal vitamin D deficiency at birth. A total of 129 mother-neonate pairs were included in the study and classified into three groups, according to neonatal 25-hydroxy-D [25(OH)D)] concentrations at birth [deficiency (<30 nmol/l), insufficiency (30-50 nmol/l) and sufficiency (>50 nmol/l)]. Neonatal biochemical and anthropometric profiles and maternal demographic, social, dietary and biochemical profiles were comparatively evaluated between the three groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent associations of maternal factors with neonatal vitamin D status.
Vitamin D deficient-neonates manifested
- higher parathyroid hormone (7.20 ± 2.60 vs 5.50 ± 1.50 pg/ml, p = 0.01) and
- lower corrected calcium (10.70 ± 0.70 vs 11.30 ± 1.30 mg/dl, p = 0.02)
- concentrations compared with vitamin D-insufficient neonates.
Mothers of vitamin D deficient and insufficient neonates had a
- lower total of 25(OH)D (31.7 ± 19.2 and 36.5 ± 22.3 vs 53.3 ± 39.0 nmol/l, p < 0.01) and
- 25(OH)D3 (27.4 ± 17.5 and 33.3 ± 19.9 vs 47.3 ± 36.7 nmol/l, p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively)
- concentrations respectively, compared with those of vitamin D-sufficient neonates.
Maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy was associated with a 5.57-fold higher risk for neonatal vitamin D deficiency at birth (OR 5.57, 95% CI1.17-26.56, p = 0.03).
Newborns with vitamin D deficiency presented a 6.89-fold higher risk of having been given birth by vitamin D deficient mothers (OR 6.89, 95% CI 3.09-15.38, p < 0.01).
In conclusion, neonatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with maternal 25(OH)D concentrations at birth and maternal alcohol use. Further studies are required to replicate these findings in other regions and populations.