Association Between Maternal Fluoride Exposure During Pregnancy and IQ Scores in Offspring in Canada
JAMA Pediatr. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.1729
Rivka Green, MA1; Bruce Lanphear, MD2,3; Richard Hornung, PhD4; et al David Flora, PhD1; E. Angeles Martinez-Mier, DDS5; Raichel Neufeld, BA1; Pierre Ayotte, PhD6,7; Gina Muckle, PhD7,8; Christine Till, PhD1
Some previous studies have found
increased Fluoride ==> Decreased Magnesium ==> Decreased Vitamin D
The word Magnesium does not occur once in the PDF
Some previous studies have found Increased Fluoride ==> Decreased Iodine
Iodine Deficiency During Pregnancy – many studies
Many other studies have found Decreased Vitamin D while pregnant==> Decreased IQ
The word Vitamin does not occur once in the PDF
- Hypothesis: Fluoridation reduces magnesium in body
- Most of the world does not have Fluoride in the water (lowers levels of Magnesium) - 1995
- Off topic: Little water fluoridation in Europe - which is good for Mg and Vitamin D – April 2013
- IQ 4 points lower in male children if fluoridated water while pregnant (perhaps Magnesium) – Aug 2019
- Little sun in first trimester, 2.9 X more likely to have learning disabilities – June 2019
- Conception in winter increases rate of Autism, learning disabilities, dyslexia – Oct 2016
- Omega-3, Vitamin D, Folic acid etc. during pregnancy and subsequent mental illness of child – March 2018
- Supplementation while pregnant and psychotic – 20 percent Omega-3, 6 percent Vitamin D – June 2016
- Preeclampsia doubles the risk of mild cognitive impairment – July 2017
- More maternal vitamin D increases child cognition (petri dish, serotonin) – Nov 2016
- All pregnant women (in UK) should have free vitamin D – Gillie Aug 2015
- Schizophrenia increased 40 percent for Spring births after Danes stopped vitamin D fortification – April 2014
- Unprecedented Lawsuit Could End Water Fluoridation in US Based on Neurotoxicity Studies June 2017
The EPA has been served (Nov 2016) with a petition that includes more than 2,500 pages of scientific documentation detailing the risks of water fluoridation to human health
"The effect of fluoride on IQ is quite large, with a predicted mean 5 IQ point loss when going from a dose of 0.5 mg/F/day to 2.0 mg F/day."
- Question Is maternal fluoride exposure during pregnancy associated with childhood IQ in a Canadian cohort receiving optimally fluoridated water?
- Findings In this prospective birth cohort study, fluoride exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower IQ scores in children aged 3 to 4 years.
- Meaning Fluoride exposure during pregnancy may be associated with adverse effects on child intellectual development, indicating the possible need to reduce fluoride intake during pregnancy.
Importance The potential neurotoxicity associated with exposure to fluoride, which has generated controversy about community water fluoridation, remains unclear.
Objective To examine the association between fluoride exposure during pregnancy and IQ scores in a prospective birth cohort.
Design, Setting, and Participants This prospective, multicenter birth cohort study used information from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals cohort. Children were born between 2008 and 2012; 41% lived in communities supplied with fluoridated municipal water. The study sample included 601 mother-child pairs recruited from 6 major cities in Canada; children were between ages 3 and 4 years at testing. Data were analyzed between March 2017 and January 2019.
Exposures Maternal urinary fluoride (MUFSG), adjusted for specific gravity and averaged across 3 trimesters available for 512 pregnant women, as well as self-reported maternal daily fluoride intake from water and beverage consumption available for 400 pregnant women.
Main Outcomes and Measures Children’s IQ was assessed at ages 3 to 4 years using the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence-III. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine covariate-adjusted associations between each fluoride exposure measure and IQ score.
Results Of 512 mother-child pairs, the mean (SD) age for enrollment for mothers was 32.3 (5.1) years, 463 (90%) were white, and 264 children (52%) were female. Data on MUFSG concentrations, IQ scores, and complete covariates were available for 512 mother-child pairs; data on maternal fluoride intake and children’s IQ were available for 400 of 601 mother-child pairs. Women living in areas with fluoridated tap water (n = 141) compared with nonfluoridated water (n = 228) had significantly higher mean (SD) MUFSG concentrations (0.69 [0.42] mg/L vs 0.40 [0.27] mg/L; P = .001; to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.05263) and fluoride intake levels (0.93 [0.43] vs 0.30 [0.26] mg of fluoride per day; P = .001). Children had mean (SD) Full Scale IQ scores of 107.16 (13.26), range 52-143, with girls showing significantly higher mean (SD) scores than boys: 109.56 (11.96) vs 104.61 (14.09); P = .001. There was a significant interaction (P = .02) between child sex and MUFSG (6.89; 95% CI, 0.96-12.82) indicating a differential association between boys and girls. A 1-mg/L increase in MUFSG was associated with a 4.49-point lower IQ score (95% CI, −8.38 to −0.60) in boys, but there was no statistically significant association with IQ scores in girls (B = 2.40; 95% CI, −2.53 to 7.33). A 1-mg higher daily intake of fluoride among pregnant women was associated with a 3.66 lower IQ score (95% CI, −7.16 to −0.14) in boys and girls.
Conclusions and Relevance In this study, maternal exposure to higher levels of fluoride during pregnancy was associated with lower IQ scores in children aged 3 to 4 years. These findings indicate the possible need to reduce fluoride intake during pregnancy.