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How Omega-3 fights metabolic syndrome and weight (behind paywall) – Feb 2018

Omega-3 fatty acids in obesity and metabolic syndrome: A mechanistic update

The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.02.012
Kembra Albracht-Schultea, b, Nishan S. Kalupahanaa, b, d, skalupahana at pdn.ac.lk, , Latha Ramalingama, b, Shu Wanga, b, Shaikh Rahmana, b, Jacalyn Robert-McCombb, c, Naima Moustaid-Moussaa, b

Strategies to reduce obesity have become public health priorities as the prevalence of obesity has risen in the United States and around the world.
While the anti-inflammatory and hypo-triglyceridemic properties of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are well known, their anti-obesity effects and efficacy against metabolic syndrome, especially in humans, are still under debate.

In animal models, evidence consistently suggests a role for n-3 PUFA in reducing fat mass, particularly in the retroperitoneal and epididymal regions.
In humans, however, published research suggests that though n-3 PUFA may not aid weight loss, they may attenuate further weight gain, and could be useful in the diet or as a supplement to help maintain weight loss.

Proposed mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA may work to improve body composition and counteract obesity-related metabolic changes include:

  • modulating lipid metabolism;
  • regulating adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin;
  • alleviating adipose tissue inflammation;
  • promoting adipogenesis; and
  • altering epigenetic mechanisms.

ALA, α–linolenic acid; AA, arachidonic acid; BMI, body mass index; BAT, brown adipose tissue; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; DPA, docosapentaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; FABP, fatty acid-binding protein; FFAR, free fatty acid receptor family; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HF, high-fat; IL, interleukin; LA, linoleic acid; MetS, metabolic syndrome; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; SFA, saturated fatty acids; TG, triglycerides; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; UCP, uncoupling protein; VLDL, very low-density lipoprotein; WAT, white adipose tissue

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