Clinical Nutrition, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2017.10.014
A. Hannemann', H. Wallaschofski, M. Nauck, P. Marschall, S. Flessa, H.J. Grabe, C.O. Schmidt, S.E. Baumeister
- Heart attack ICU costs cut in half by Vitamin D – Oct 2018
- Trauma with fracture – 2 weeks longer hospital stay if less than 10 ng vitamin D – Jan 2018
- ICU cost reduced by at least 27,000 dollars if get high dose vitamin D in first week - April 2017
- Vitamin D and Glutamine reduced Trauma Center deaths by half – March 2017
- Chance of dying in hospital cut in half by just 10 ng higher level of Vitamin D – April 2016
- Hospital ICU added high dose vitamin D - malpractice lawsuit costs dropped from 26 million dollars to ZERO - Oct 2016
- 18 fewer hospital days if given 500,000 IU of vitamin D while ventilated in ICU – RCT June 2016
- ICU death rate reduced 3X when a single dose of vitamin D changed the PTH – Nov 2015
- Children stayed in ICU 3.5 days longer if low vitamin D – Dec 2015
- Heart Attack ICU costs reduced $37,000 by $20 of Vitamin D – Nov 2015
- Surgical outcomes are better for higher levels of Vitamin D – systematic review May 2015
- Shorter time in ICU if have higher level of vitamin D – April 2012
- Spinal fusion patients often low on vitamin D - Nov 2011
- Staph infection reduced 50 percent when have more than 30 ng of vitamin D – Aug 2011
- Vitamin D reduces sepsis
- MRSA inpatient cost 2X higher if less than 20 ng vitamin D – June 2011
- 540000 IU before ICU raised vitamin D by 25 ng in 2 days – March 2011
- ICU time is 2X more likely to be longer than 2 days if vitamin D less than 20 ng – Mar 2011
- Virtually all veterans in ICU had vitamin D less than 32 ng – Jan 2011
- Patients low on vitamin D stay in hospital longer after thyroid removal – Dec 2010
- HMOs will save millions of dollars with vitamin D
Background & Aims
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher morbidity. However, there is few data regarding the effect of vitamin D deficiency on health care costs. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration (25OHD) and direct health care costs and hospitalization in two independent samples of the general population in North-Eastern Germany.
We studied 7,217 healthy individuals from the ‘Study of Health in Pomerania’ (SHIP n=3,203) and the ‘Study of Health in Pomerania-Trend’ (SHIP-Trend n=4,014) who had valid 25OHD measurements and provided data on annual total costs, outpatient costs, hospital stays, and inpatient costs. The associations between 25OHD concentrations (modelled continuously using factional polynomials) and health care costs were examined using a generalized linear model with gamma distribution and a log link. Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks of hospitalization.
In cross-sectional analysis of SHIP-Trend, non-linear associations between the 25OHD concentration and inpatient costs and hospitalization were detected: participants with 25OHD concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 ng/ml had 226.1%, 51.5% and 14.1%, respectively, higher inpatient costs than those with 25OHD concentrations of 20 ng/ml (overall p-value=0.001) in multivariable models.
We found a relation between lower 25OHD concentrations and increased inpatient health care costs and hospitalization. Our results thus indicate an influence of vitamin D deficiency on health care costs in the general population.