Circ Res. 2014 Jan 17;114(2):379-93. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.301241.
Norman PE paul.norman at uwa.edu.au, Powell JT.
School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia (P.E.N.)
Vascular Surgery Research Group, Imperial College, Charing Cross Campus, London, United Kingdom (J.T.P.).
Vitamin D plays a classical hormonal role in skeletal health by regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Vitamin D metabolites also have physiological functions in nonskeletal tissues, where local synthesis influences regulatory pathways via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, binds to the vitamin D receptor that regulates numerous genes involved in fundamental processes of potential relevance to cardiovascular disease, including
- cell proliferation and differentiation,
- oxidative stress,
- membrane transport,
- matrix homeostasis, and
- cell adhesion.
Vitamin D receptors have been found in all the major cardiovascular cell types including *cardiomyocytes,
- arterial wall cells, and
- immune cells.
Experimental studies have established a role for vitamin D metabolites in pathways that are integral to cardiovascular function and disease, including
- thrombosis, and the
- renin-angiotensin system.
Clinical studies have generally demonstrated an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and various manifestations of degenerative cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification.
However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the management of cardiovascular disease remains to be established. This review summarizes the clinical studies showing associations between vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease and the experimental studies that explore the mechanistic basis for these associations.
- Overview Cardiovascular and vitamin D
- Cardiovascular category list, including related categories and searches
- Best heart geometry associated with vitamin D of 30-37 ng – Oct 2012
- Major Heart attacks occur 40 percent more often if vitamin D lower than 7 ng – Feb 2013
- Magnesium prevents cardiovascular events – Meta-analysis March 2013