Association between vitamin D deficiency and heart failure risk in the elderly
ESC Heart Failure, First published: 17 August 2017, DOI: 10.1002/ehf2.12198
Catarina Magalhães Porto, Vanessa De Lima Silva, João Soares Brito da Luz, Brivaldo Markman Filho, Vera Magalhães da Silveira
- Chronic Heart Failure not treated by Vitamin D, if dose size is ignored – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- Chronic Heart Failure – not enough evidence that Vitamin D helps (but lots of evidence for other cardiovascular problems) – Aug 2017
- Risk of Cardiac failure reduced 20 percent by 800 IU of vitamin D and Calcium – meta-analysis July 2014
- Chronic Heart Failure improved with 4,000 IU daily for a year – RCT April 2016
- Heart Failure early death 2X more likely if less than 20 nanograms of vitamin D – June 2012
- Vitamin D augmented conventional Congestive Heart Failure treatment in perhaps 10 ways – case reports April 2017
- Search VitaminDWiki for CHF or "HEART FAILURE" 1220 items as of Aug 2017
- Major heart problems avoided if have high vitamin D – 234,000 people Nov 2015
Cardiovascular category starts with the following
- Overview Cardiovascular and vitamin D
- Hypertension and vitamin D
- Overview Metabolic Syndrome and vitamin D
- Overview Stroke and vitamin D
- Peripheral arterial disease risk is 1.5X higher if low vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018
- Peripheral Arterial Disease 3.7 X more likely in diabetics with low vitamin D – June 2019
- Heart attack ICU costs cut in half by Vitamin D – Oct 2018
- Heart Failure and Vitamin D meta-analyses - 2016, 2019
- Cardiovascular death 1.5X more likely if less than 20 ng of Vitamin D – 22nd meta-analysis Nov 2019
- Vitamin D supplementation reduces many Cardiovascular Disease markers– meta-analysis July 2018
- Cardiovascular Prevention with Omega-3 (finally using high doses) – Sept 2019
- Higher Omega-3 index (4 to 8 percent) associated with 30 percent less risk of coronary disease (10 studies) July 2017
A poor Vitamin D Receptor can block Vitamin D in blood from getting to tissues
- Heart Failure 15X more likely if poor VDR, even if good level of vitamin D (China) – March 2019
- Coronary Artery Disease without diabetes 5 times more likely if VDR gene problems – meta-analysis May 2016
- Cholesterol is needed to produce both Vitamin D and Cortisol
- Overview Cholesterol and vitamin D
- Statins and vitamin D statins often reduce levels of vitamin D
- Statin side-effects are reduced by Vitamin D – US patent Application – April 2019
Heart Failure Definitions
- Mayo Clinic Heart failure, sometimes known as congestive heart failure, occurs when your heart muscle doesn't pump blood as well as it should. Certain conditions, such as narrowed arteries in your heart (coronary artery disease) or high blood pressure, gradually leave your heart too weak or stiff to fill and pump efficiently.
- American Heart Association: The term "heart failure" makes it sound like the heart is no longer working at all and there's nothing that can be done. Actually, heart failure means that the heart isn't pumping as well as it should be. Congestive heart failure is a type of heart failure which requires seeking timely medical attention, although sometimes the two terms are used interchangeably.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of heart failure in elderly patients of cardiology outpatient clinics.
Methods and results
A cross-sectional study with an analytical approach was employed. Clinical data were collected from the elderly from August 2015 to February 2016. The dependent variable was the risk of heart failure; the independent variable was vitamin D deficiency; and intervening factors were age, gender, education, ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, renal failure, dementia, stroke, dyslipidaemia, depression, smoking, alcoholism, obesity, andropause, and cardiac arrhythmia.
To analyse the association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of heart failure, we used the bivariate logistic analysis, followed by analysis through the multivariate logistic regression model.
Of the 137 elderly, the study found the following:
- women (75.9%);
- overweight (48.2%);
- obese (30.6%);
- increase in the index waist/hip (88.3%);
- dyslipidaemia (94.2%) and
- hypertension (91.2%);
- coronary artery disease (35.0%); and
- 27.7% with cardiac arrhythmia or left ventricular hypertrophy.
Sixty-five per cent of the elderly were deficient in vitamin D.
The risk of heart failure was significantly associated with
- vitamin D deficiency [odds ratio (OR): *12.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.23–35.16; P = 0.000],
- male gender (OR: 15.32; 95% CI = 3.39–69.20, P = 0.000),
- obesity (OR: 4.17; 95% CI = 1.36–12.81; P = 0.012), and
- cardiac arrhythmia (OR: 3.69; 95% CI = 1.23–11.11; P = 0.020).
There was a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elderly, and the evidence shows a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of heart failure in this population.
Serum vitamin D deficiency and risk of hospitalization for heart failure: Prospective results from the Moli-sani study
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol 28, Issue 3, March 2018, Pages 298-307, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2017.11.008
- Findings from epidemiological studies on Vitamin D deficiency and risk of heart failure (HF) are controversial.
- In Italian adults, levels of Vitamin D (<10 ng/mL) was associated with a higher risk (+61%) of hospitalization for HF.
- Adjustment for subclinical inflammation did not substantially change the association between Vitamin D deficiency and HF.
Background and aims
Evidence indicates that Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although findings on risk of heart failure (HF) are controversial. We investigated the relationship between serum Vitamin D and the incidence of hospitalization for HF in a large prospective cohort of Italian adults.
Methods and results
19,092 (49% men, age range 35–99 years) HF-free individuals from the Moli-sani study, with complete data on serum Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin) levels and incident hospitalized HF, were analysed. The cohort was followed up for a median of 6.2 years. Baseline serum Vitamin D levels were categorized in deficient (<10 ng/mL), insufficient (10–29 ng/mL), and normal (≥30 ng/mL) Incident cases of hospitalization for HF were identified by linkage with the regional hospital discharge registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox-proportional hazard models. The prevalence of normal, insufficient or deficient levels of Vitamin D was 12.2%, 79.6% and 8.2%, respectively. During follow-up, 562 admissions to hospital for HF were identified. The incidence of HF was 1.6%, 2.9% and 5.3%, respectively in subjects with normal, insufficient and deficient levels of Vitamin D. After multivariable analysis, individuals with deficiency of Vitamin D had a higher risk of hospitalization for HF (HR: 1.61, 95%CI: 1.06–2.43) than those with normal levels. Further adjustment for subclinical inflammation did not substantially change the association between Vitamin D deficiency and HF.
Deficiency of Vitamin D was associated, independently of known HF risk factors, with an increased risk of hospitalization for HF in an Italian adult population.