Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and mortality from heart failure and cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality from all-cause in United States adults.
Am J Cardiol. 2012 Sep 15;110(6):834-9. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.05.013. Epub 2012 Jun 2.
Liu L, Chen M, Hankins SR, Nùñez AE, Watson RA, Weinstock PJ, Newschaffer CJ, Eisen HJ; Drexel Cardiovascular Health Collaborative Education, Research, and Evaluation Group.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Longjian.Liu at Drexel.edu
We aimed to examine associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration and mortality from heart failure (HF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature death from all causes using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which included 13,131 participants (6,130 men, 7,001 women) ≥35 years old at baseline (1988 to 1994) and followed through December 2000. Premature death was defined all-cause death at <75 years of age.
Results indicated that during an average 8-year follow-up, there were 3,266 deaths (24.9%) including 101 deaths from HF, 1,451 from CVD, and 1,066 premature all-cause deaths. Among HF deaths, 37% of decedents had serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/ml, whereas only 26% of those with non-HF deaths had such levels (p <0.001). Multivariate-adjusted Cox model indicated that subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/ml had 2.06 times higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 4.25) of HF death than those with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/ml (p <0.001). In addition, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for premature death from all causes were 1.40 (1.17 to 1.68) in subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/ml and 1.11 (0.93 to 1.33) in those with serum 25(OH)D levels of 20 to 29 ng/ml compared to those with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/ml (p <0.001, test for trend). In conclusion, adults with inadequate serum 25(OH)D levels have significantly higher risk of death from HF and all CVDs and all-cause premature death.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- 13,000 people had vitamin D measured
- Within a 8 years there were 3,000 pre-mature deaths
- Risk of death from heart failure 2X higher if < 20 ng of vitamin D at start of study
- Risk of all-cause death 1.4X higher if < 20 ng of vitamin D at start of study
- Half as many heart deaths for those with high levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2012 different study, same conclusion
- Major Heart attacks occur 40 percent more often if vitamin D lower than 7 ng – Feb 2013 different study, similar conclusion
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