- 25% of men
- 48% of women
Background on Body Mass Index at BMI – WikiPedia
- BMI became a standard by 1850 – more 160 years ago
- Has been known for a long time that BMI is easy to calculate but serves only as a vague means of estimating adiposity.
- Additional indexes described in WikiPedia include:
Body volume index; Waist-hip ratio; Sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD); Body fat percentage
Body water; Allometric law; Ponderal index; Rohrer's index
- BMI does not take into account many factors such as: frame size, muscularity, varying proportions of fat, bone, cartilage, water weight
Measuring Adiposity in Patients: The Utility of Body Mass Index (BMI), Percent Body Fat, and Leptin
Nirav R. Shah1 ¤, Eric R. Braverman 2, 3* April 2012
1 Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America,
2 PATH Foundation NY, New York, New York, United States of America, info at pathfoundationny.org
3 Department of Neurosurgery, Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America
Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI) is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to help diagnose and treat obesity.
A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998–2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2). Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9) and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3).
BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat.
Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL). Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
Books by Braverman - from his website
- Braverman ER. What’s Your Spiritual Health?: Diagnosing This Critical Component of Your Total Health. Publications for Achieving Total Health; 1994.
- Braverman ER. How to Lower Your Blood Pressure and Reverse Heart Disease Naturally. Publications for Achieving Total Health, 1995.Braverman ER, Taub M. Hypertension and Nutrition. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 1996
- Braverman ER. The Healing Nutrients Within: Facts, Findings and New Research on Amino Acids. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing; 1997.
- Braverman ER. PATH Wellness Manual, Publications for Achieving Total Health. 2nd ed.; 1998
- Braverman ER. Male Sexual Fitness. Causes and Solutions for Andropause. Lincolnwood, IL: Keats Publishing; 1999.
- Braverman ER. The Healing Nutrients Within: Facts, Findings and New Research on Amino Acids. 3rd Edition. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, Inc.; 2003
- Braverman ER. The Edge Effect: Achieve Total Health and Longevity with the Balanced Brain Advantage. New York, NY: Sterling Publishing; 2004
- Braverman ER, Braverman D. The Amazing Way to Reverse Heart Disease Naturally. North Bergen, NJ: Basic Health Publications, Inc.; 2004.
- Braverman ER. Younger You: Unlock the Hidden Power of Your brain to Look and Feel 15 Years Younger. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2007.
- Braverman ER. Younger (Thinner) You Diet: How understanding Your Brain Chemistry Can Help You Lose Weight, Reverse Aging, and Fight Disease. New York, NY: Rodale Inc.; 2009.
- Braverman ER. Younger (Sexier) You: Look and Feel 15 Years Younger by Having the Best Sex of Your Life. New York, NY: Rodale Inc.; 2011.
- Braverman ER. Younger Brain, Sharper Mind: A 6-Step Plan for Preserving and Improving Memory and Attention at Any Age from America’s Brain Doctor, Rodale Publishing; 2011.
- Overview Obesity and Vitamin D
- Perhaps women have lower levels of Vitamin D because vitamin D hides in fat
- Higher BMI need more vitamin D – Oct 2010
- When BMI is an incorrect measure of obesity - March 2010
- BMI in title of articles in VitaminDWiki 16 as of Oct 2014
- All items in category Obesity and Vitamin D
- New Study Shows Obesity Rate Is Actually Far Worse than Previously Recognized Mercola April 2012
- Why BMI Is Not a Great Indicator of Body Composition Mercola June, 2012
Waist size ( "visceral fat" or "belly fat."), fat calibers, DXA, recommends EatSmart (the black scale shown below)
- Amazon Fat Meters both electronic and mechanical.
Many fat meters with positive reviews cost about $40 - such as:
- Fat meter margin of error 3% to 8% 2008
- Reasons for large changes 2012
avoid during previous 3 hours: exercising, eating , drinking
short url for this page = http://is.gd/BMIerror