High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and influencing factors among urban and rural residents in Tianjin, China.
Arch Osteoporos. 2018 Jun 2;13(1):64. doi: 10.1007/s11657-018-0479-8.
Fang F1, Wei H1, Wang K1, Tan L2, Zhang W2, Ding L1, Liu T1, Shan Z3, Zhu M4.
- Is 50 ng of vitamin D too high, just right, or not enough
- Vitamin D - at least 4,000 IU to achieve 40-60 ng and reduce risk of early death – Holick June 2018
- Vitamin D Consensus, Brazil – Many people need 30 – 60 ng – Nov 2017
- Seniors need at least 4,000 IU vitamin D, no test needed – Consensus Jan 2014
- Consensus Vitamin D category listing has
34 items along with related searches
- 30 to 50 ng of vitamin D is optimal – Central Europe consensus Sept 2013
- Vitamin D more than 40 ng: 1300 IU 50% chance: 5,000 IU 80% chance - Aug 2014
- Vitamin D supplementation guidelines (adults – 50,000 IU per week) – Feb 2017
- 6,000 IU needed for many to achieve 40 ng of Vitamin D - Feb 2017
- 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks – Jordan conclusion - RCT July 2017 approx 3,600 daily
- “Serum 25(OH)D levels were classified into four categories according to the North American Institute of Medicine (IOM) guideline 17: deficient (0–30 nmol/L), inadequate (30–50 nmol/L), sufficient (50–125 nmol/L), and potentially harmful (≥ 125 nmol/L).”
The city is a similar distance from equator as Korea and Japan
There was a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among residents in Tianjin, China, especially among female residents, rural young adults, and elderly individuals. This is the first large-scale study evaluating vitamin D status in Tianjin, China, and we believe that it makes a significant contribution to the literature.
Vitamin D deficiency has been documented as a worldwide public health problem. To our knowledge, there has not been any large-scale study on vitamin D status in Tianjin, China. The aim of this study was to investigate vitamin D status among Tianjin residents and to determine influencing factors.
This is a community-based study, and residents from both urban and rural areas of Tianjin were enrolled. Each participant completed a questionnaire regarding basic characteristics and lifestyle information. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were statistically analyzed according to sex, age, and region. Other factors associated with vitamin D deficiency were also explored.
A total of 1814 participants were included, with mean serum 25(OH)D level of 49.44 ± 14.9 nmol/L; only 47.63% achieved the optimal (50-125 nmol/L) 25(OH)D level. Serum 25(OH)D levels were higher among male participants than among female participants (53.44 ± 13.94 versus 46.55 ± 14.91 nmol/L, P < 0.05) and among urban participants than among rural participants (50.4 ± 16.32 versus 48.65 ± 13.58 nmol/L, P < 0.05). Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher among the age group of 40-49 years (50.7 ± 17.99 nmol/L) than among the ≥ 70 years (48.45 ± 14.49 nmol/L) or 18-29 years (47.81 ± 13.08 nmol/L) age groups.
There was a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/inadequacy among Tianjin residents, especially among female participants, rural young adults, and elderly individuals. Vitamin D supplementation is imperative for these high-risk vitamin D-deficient residents.