Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2018 Nov;21(6):471-474. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000516.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review is to summarize the recent progress of vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) and microbiome in intestinal homeostasis, airway function, and other organs.
Microbiome is considered as a newly discovered human organ. It is critical in the synthesis of vitamins and harvest of otherwise inaccessible nutrients, metabolism of xenobiotics, body fat storage, renewal of gut epithelial cells, and mature of immune system. Vitamin D and VDR are known to regulate microbiome in health and disease. We will focus on the recent findings published in 12-18 months and discuss the vitamin D supplement and its effects on microbiome, intestinal homeostasis, airway function, and metabolism. We will emphasize the tissue specificity and genetic factor of VDR and microbiome.
SUMMARY: The findings in dietary vitamin D, VDR, and microbiome with personalized genetic information will be implicated for optimal prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.
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Eur J Nutr. 2018 Oct 15. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1842-7.
Waterhouse M1, Hope B1, Krause L2, Morrison M2, Protani MM3, Zakrzewski M1, Neale RE4.
Variation in the human microbiome has been linked with a variety of physiological functions, including immune regulation and metabolism and biosynthesis of vitamins, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Evidence for extraskeletal effects of vitamin D has been accruing and it has been suggested that the effect of vitamin D on health is partially mediated through the microbiome. We aimed to critically evaluate the evidence linking vitamin D and the gastrointestinal microbiome.
We systematically searched the Embase, Web of Science, PubMed and CINAHL databases, including peer-reviewed publications that reported an association between a measure of vitamin D and the gastrointestinal microbiome in humans or experimental animals.
We included 10 mouse and 14 human studies. Mouse studies compared mice fed diets containing different levels of vitamin D (usually high versus low), or vitamin D receptor knockout or Cyp27B1 knockout with wild-type mice. Five mouse studies reported an increase in Bacteroidetes (or taxa within that phylum) in the low vitamin D diet or gene knockout group. Human studies were predominantly observational; all but two of the included studies found some association between vitamin D and the gut microbiome, but the nature of differences observed varied across studies.
Despite substantial heterogeneity, we found evidence to support the hypothesis that vitamin D influences the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome. However, the research is limited, having been conducted either in mice or in mostly small, selected human populations. Future research in larger population-based studies is needed to fully understand the extent to which vitamin D modulates the microbiome.
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- Childhood asthma about 1.3 times more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – meta-analysis Aug 2016
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