The Level of Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Correlates with Vitamin D Status Men and Women But Not in Boys
Nicola A. Dennis, Lisa A. Houghton, Gregory T. Jones, Andre M. van Rij, Kirstie Morgan and Ian S. McLennan
Department of Anatomy (N.A.D., K.M., I.S.M.), Otago School of Medical Sciences, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand; Departments of Human Nutrition (L.A.H.), Psychology (K.M.), and Surgery (G.T.J., A.M.v.R.), Dunedin School of Medicine, and Brain Health Research Centre (N.A.D., I.S.M.), University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Ian McLennan, Lindo Ferguson Building, Great King Street, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. E-mail: ian.mclennan at anatomy.otago.ac.nz.
Context: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a gonad-specific hormone, which is extensively used as a marker of gonadal status. The level of serum AMH has a high variance in similar individuals for reasons that are unknown. The AMH gene promoter contains a vitamin D response element that may cause vitamin D status to influence serum AMH levels.
Aim: The objective of the study was to determine whether serum levels of AMH are related to 25-hydroxyitamin D [25(OH)D)] status.
Setting: This was a correlative and intervention study.
Participants: Three cohorts of participants were analyzed; mature men (n = 113), premenopausal women (n = 33), and 5- to 6-yr-old boys (n = 74). Women were given a daily supplement of ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol, or a placebo for 6 months and provided baseline and posttreatment blood samples.
Main Outcome Measures: Serum AMH and 25(OH)D were measured and analyzed for covariation.
Results: Serum AMH positively correlated with 25(OH)D in men (r = 0.22, P = 0.02) but not boys. Both 25(OH)D and AMH levels exhibited seasonal variation in women, with an 18% decrease in AMH levels in winter compared with summer (P = 0.01).
Change in AMH level correlated with the initial AMH level and the magnitude of change in vitamin D levels (r = 0.36, P = 0.004).
Cholecalciferol supplementation prevented seasonal AMH change.
Conclusion: Vitamin D may be a positive regulator of AMH production in adults, and vitamin D deficiency may confound clinical decisions based on AMH. Vitamin D deficiency should be considered when serum AMH levels are obtained for diagnosis.