Fact: Anti-Epilepsy drugs lower vitamin D levels
Fact: Vitamin D supplementation increases Vitamin D levels
Fact: Treat Epilepsy with Vitamin D (5,000 IU)
Recommendation: Epileptics should take vitamin D to:
Reduce number of siezures (restore vitamin D then take maintenance dose of at least 5,000 IU daily)
Avoid having health problems associated with low vitamin D, such as low bone density
1 study: Epileptics have low vitamin D levels before starting treatment
No data: Vitamin D prevents Epilepsy
Epilepsy = 4,000 years of ignorance, superstition and stigma
followed by 100 years of knowledge, superstition and stigma.
Table of contents
- See also VitaminDWiki
- Review of Epilepsy trials with supplements- Nov 2020
- Individuals using antiepileptic drugs need vitamin D - meta-analysis March 2020
- Anti-epileptic drugs reduce Vit D, 60,000 IU monthly increases level, even with drugs – RCT Nov 2018
- Antiepileptic drugs associated with alarmingly low Vitamin D – Aug 2018
- Many Antiepileptic drugs decrease Vitamin D - Feb 2017
- Antiepileptic drugs reduce vitamin D levels - 2016
- Epilepsy appears to be treated by Vitamin D (starting 5,000 IU RCT) – Dec 2016
- Epilepsy associated with low vitamin D, even before drug therapy started - Oct 2015
- Idiopathic Epilepsy at AboutKidsHealth
- Anti-epilepsy drugs are known to decrease Vitamin D levels, yet they still only recommend 400 IU - 2020
- See also PubMed
- See also web
- CBD helps some people with Epilepsy
- wiki page:
- Enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs required 37 percent more IU Vitamin D to achieve 30 nanograms – Nov 2018
- Epilepsy 1.4 X more likely if poor Vitamin D Binding Protein (Han Chinese) – July 2018
- Omega-3 and Vitamin D each treat many mental health problems - April 2018
- Vitamin D gene expression varies with Epileptic age – March 2018
- 10 Diseases associated with Multiple Sclerosis are also associated with low Omega-3 and vitamin D – Feb 2016
- Epilepsy associated with low vitamin D 37 years ago, but still fewer than 1 in 1000 take vitamin D – Feb 2016
- Epileptic children have low levels of vitamin D – VitaminDWiki
- Learning Disabilities, anti-epileptic drugs, and subsequent vitamin D deficiency - Oct 2014
- Osteoporosis due to antiepileptic drugs: placebo including Vitamin D helped 69 percent, placebo with risedronate helped 70% – Sept 2013
- Children with epilepsy advised to take vitamin D – July 2013
- Epilepsy and deficiency of vitamin D and-or Magnesium – Feb 2013
- Epilepsy seizures reduced by 40 percent after vitamin D levels normalized – April 2012
- Hypothesis – UV treat epilepsy – Feb 2011
- Diseases which are related due to vitamin D deficiency
- Interactions with Vitamin D category listing has
103 items along with related searches
- CBD benefits - review of literature April 2019
. 2020 Oct 29;S0261-5614(20)30591-4. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2020.10.045
Clinical trials of vitamin-mineral supplementations in people with epilepsy: A systematic review
Ali A Asadi-Pooya 1, Leila Simani 2
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to systematically review the literature on the clinical trials of vitamin-mineral supplementations in people with epilepsy (PWE) to treat their seizures.
Methods: MEDLINE and Scopus from inception to August 25, 2020 were searched for related published manuscripts. The search keywords included "vitamin or folate or folic acid or biotin or thiamine or carnitine or zinc or manganese or selenium or omega-3 fatty acid or linoleic acid or micronutrient or trace element or supplementation" AND "epilepsy or seizure".
Results: We could identify 26 related articles. Seventeen studies provided class 2 of evidence and the rest provided class 3 of evidence. Eight studies investigated polyunsaturated fats, seven groups studied folic acid, four studies explored the effects of vitamin D, two investigated vitamin E, and three others studied multivitamin cocktails. There was one study on zinc and one on selenium. There is some evidence on the efficacy of polyunsaturated fats in treating seizures in PWE. The evidence on the efficacy of multivitamin cocktails in adults is promising.
Conclusion: High quality data on the efficacy of nutritional (vitamins-minerals) supplementations in treating seizures in PWE is scarce; however, designing future clinical trials of polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for drug-resistant seizures in adults with focal epilepsy and in children, and also multivitamin supplementations in adults with focal epilepsy seems reasonable and promising. Such clinical trials should be well-designed, randomized, and placebo controlled, with enough sample size and adequate follow-up of 12 months or more.
Download the PDF from sci-hub via VitaminDWiki
Vitamin D deficiency in a Portuguese epilepsy cohort: who is at risk and how to treat
Epileptic Disord . 2021 Apr 19. doi: 10.1684/epd.2021.1268
Vitamin D Deficiency in Pediatric Patients Using Antiepileptic Drugs: Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis
Review J Pediatr (Rio J), 2020 Mar 11, DOI: 10.1016/j.jped.2020.01.004
Cíntia Junges 1, Tania Diniz Machado 2, Paulo Ricardo Santos Nunes Filho 3, Rudimar Riesgo 2, Elza Daniel de Mello 2
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Objectives: To measure the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (through the 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolite) in pediatric patients using antiepileptic drugs.
Source of data: Meta-analysis of studies identified through search in the PubMed, Embase, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases, on February 19, 2019.
Summary of data: A total of 748 articles were identified, 29 of which were relevant to the objectives of this study. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency found was 0.32 (95% CI=0.25-0.41; I2=92%, p<0.01). In the subgroup analyses, the most significant results were observed in the group of patients using cytochrome P450-inducing antiepileptic drugs, with a prevalence of 0.33 (95% CI=0.21-0.47; I2=86%, p<0.01) and, considering the study design, in the subgroup of cohort studies, with a prevalence of 0.52 (95% CI=0.40-0.64; I2=76%, p<0.01).
Conclusions: Taking into account the deleterious effects of vitamin D deficiency on the bone health of individuals using antiepileptic drugs, it is suggested to include in their care 25-hydroxyvitamin D monitoring, cholecalciferol supplementation, and treatment of the deficiency, when present.
Anti-epileptic drugs reduce Vit D, 60,000 IU monthly increases level, even with drugs – RCT Nov 2018
Effect of high dose vitamin d supplementation on vitamin d nutrition status of pre-pubertal children on anti-epileptic drugs – A randomized controlled trial
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2018.11.007
Background and aims
Patients on long term anti-epileptic drug therapy are prone for Vitamin D deficiency for a myriad of reasons. The aim of this research was to study the effect of high dose vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D nutrition status of children newly started on anti-epileptic drug therapy.
This randomized controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary care Children's Hospital at New Delhi from November 2011 to March 2013. Eighty three children in the age group 5–10 years newly started on anti-epileptic drugs (AED) were randomized into two groups; group A – the intervention group, to whom 60,000 IU vitamin D3 was given orally/month under direct supervision along with AED for a period of 6 months, and group B- the control group, to whom AED without vitamin D3 was given. Serum 25(OH)D, ionized calcium (iCa), total calcium (tCa), inorganic phosphate (iP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were assayed at baseline and at the end of 6 months and were compared within and between the two groups.
The mean 25(OH)D in Group A was maintained at 6 months follow up [ 26 ng/ml, 95% CI 20–34 ng/ml] compared to baseline [25 ng/ml, 95% CI −19 to 33 ng/ml] [ p = 0.83]. In group B, there was a significant decrease in 25(OH)D levels at 6 months [13 ng/ml (95% CI 9 ng/ml–17 ng/ml)] compared to baseline [18 ng/ml (95% CI 13–24 ng/ml)] [p = 0.01]. At 6 months, mean serum 25(OH)D was significantly higher in group A as compared to group B (p = 0.005).
Conclusion: To conclude, oral administration of 60,000 IU vitamin D3/month is sufficient to maintain serum 25(OH)D level and prevent development of vitamin D deficiency in children newly started on AED over a period of 6 months. Non supplementation leads to the lowering of serum 25(OH)D in these children.
Trial Registration Number: CTRI/2017/08/009234.
The impact of Antiepileptic drugs on Vitamins levels in epileptic patients.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018 Aug 15. doi: 10.2174/1389201019666180816104716
Shaikh AS1, Guo X1, Li Y2, Cao L2, Liu X2, Li P1, Zhang R1, Guo R1.
1 Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan. China.
2 Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan. China.
The impact of antiepileptics on serum vitamin levels is controversial and uncertain. With no clear conclusions on the impact of antiepileptics on serum levels of vitamins, there is a need for further clinical studies in order to ascertain the impact of old and newer antiepileptic drugs on serum levels of vitamins in epileptic patients, thus accomplishing a suitable usage of vitamins supplementation.
The intention of the present research is to confirm the hypothesis of whether or not vitamin levels are altered with antiepileptic drugs. The study also aims to reveal which vitamin levels are particularly more altered, are vitamin levels affected by gender and the type and number of antiepileptics used.
The present research was piloted in collaboration with the Department of Neurology in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University. A total of 63 serum samples of epileptic patients receiving antiepileptics as monotherapy or polytherapy were requested for analysis of nine vitamin serum levels. Total nine vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B9, B12, A, C, D and E) in epileptic patients receiving antiepileptic drugs were analyzed. The serum results of all vitamins were compiled and evaluated with SPSS.
It was alarmingly found that serum levels of vitamin D were particularly very low in almost all (90%) epileptic patients in this study. Notably, serum levels of vitamin C and vitamin B1 were also below reference range in 72% and 46% epileptic patients, respectively. The remaining vitamins were almost in reference range for most of the patients. In our study, mean and frequency of vitamin D, C and B1 levels do not vary too much among different gender groups. The patients receiving newer antiepileptic drugs displayed a slightly increased serum vitamin D levels in comparison to the patients receiving older antiepileptic drugs. We found low vitamin D, C and B1 serum levels in patients who were on monotherapy as in comparison with patients on polytherapy.
The most significant and surprising finding of this study revealed that serum vitamin D levels in particular were very low in almost all patients and in some patients vitamin B1 serum levels were also below the reference range. More importantly, it is first time reported here that vitamin C serum levels were also below reference range in the majority of these Chinese epileptic patients. It is recommended that all these vitamins should be regularly monitored in addition to therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs. Additional clinical trials are required for further evaluation. It is also recommended that epileptic patients with low serum levels of these vitamins may be prescribed vitamins supplementations with antiepileptic drugs in order to control their seizures more effectively and efficiently.
- Epilepsy and vitamin D: a comprehensive review of current knowledge Feb 2017
- Seems like a comprehensive study, PDF from sci-hub
Effect of Antiepileptic Therapy on Serum 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 Levels in Epileptic Children
Ann Nutr Metab. 2016;68(2):119-27. doi: 10.1159/000443535. Epub 2016 Jan 27.
He X1, Jiang P, Zhu W, Xue Y, Li H, Dang R, Cai H, Tang M, Zhang L, Wu Y.
Institute of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Changsha, China.
Vitamin D deficiency is not only associated with the adverse effects of chronic treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), but also with epilepsy. Although emerging evidence suggests that AEDs can accelerate the vitamin D catabolism, resulting in suboptimal vitamin D status, there are a limited number of studies examining the vitamin D status in epileptic patients, especially in first-episode or AEDs-naïve children.
Determined with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, circulating 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 levels, and 24,25(OH)2D3:25(OH)D3 ratio were compared between AEDs-treated epileptic (n = 363) and control (n = 159) children. To further figure out whether the patients were in a vitamin D deficient prone state even before treatment, epileptic children before their initiation of treatment (n = 51) were enrolled into a follow-up study.
A significant decrease of 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 levels, but a significant increase of 24,25(OH)2D3:25(OH)D3 ratio was observed in epileptic children, compared with controls. Baseline 25(OH)D3, 24,25(OH)2D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3:25(OH)D3 ratio in the follow-up group were similar to those in controls, but significantly changed with 2 months of AED therapy.
Disturbed vitamin D levels were possibly the consequence of AED therapy, rather than the contributing factor of epilepsy. Collectively, circulating vitamin D levels should be monitored and corrected in AEDs-treated epileptic children.
Vitamin D for the Treatment of Epilepsy: Basic Mechanisms, Animal Models and Clinical Trials
Front. Neurol. | doi: 10.3389/fneur.2016.00218
Kevin Pendo2 and Christopher M. DeGiorgio, MD1*
1 University of California, USA, 2 Princeton, USA
There is increasing evidence supporting dietary and alternative therapies for epilepsy, including the ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin D is actively under investigation as a potential intervention for epilepsy. Vitamin D is fat soluble steroid which shows promise in animal models of epilepsy. Basic research has shed light on the possible mechanisms by which Vitamin D may reduce seizures, and animal data support the efficacy of Vitamin D in rat and mouse models of epilepsy. Very little clinical data exists to support the treatment of human epilepsy with Vitamin D, but positive findings from preliminary clinical trials warrant larger Phase I and II clinical trials in order to more rigorously determine the potential therapeutic value of Vitamin D as a treatment for human epilepsy.
From the end of the conclusion section
"Recently, our group has received an IND for a Phase I study of Vitamin D3 in drug-resistant epilepsy to study the safety, preliminary efficacy and potential cardiac benefits of Vitamin D3 5000 IU/day in drug-resistant epilepsy."
Vitamin D Deficiency in Children With Newly Diagnosed Idiopathic Epilepsy
J Child Neurol October 2015 vol. 30 no. 11 1428-1432
Fatma Mujgan Sonmez, MD1⇑, Ahsen Donmez, MD2, Mehmet Namuslu, MD3
Metin Canbal, MD4, Emel Orun, MD2
1Department of Child Neurology, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey
2Department of Pediatrics, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey
3Department of Biochemistry, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey
4Department of Family Medicine, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey
Fatma Mujgan Sonmez, MD, Department of Child Neurology, Turgut Ozal University, Alparslan Turkes Caddesi, No: 57 Emek, Ankara 06560, Turkey. Email: mjgsonmez at yahoo.comVitaminDWiki Summary
14 ng for newly diagnosed vs 23 ng for controls
Suspect that newly diagnosed have not had Vitamin D depleting drugs
- Vitamin D appears to treat Epilepsy, and might prevent Epilepsy
- Vitamin D is depleted by many epileptic drugs
- People with Epilepsy should take vitamin D so as to avoid having health problems associated with low vitamin D, such as low bone density
Several studies have shown a link between vitamin D deficiency and epilepsy. This study includes 60 newly diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy patients and 101 healthy controls (between the ages of 5 and 16). Each group was also divided into two subgroups according to seasonal changes in terms of months of longer versus shorter daylight. We retrospectively evaluated the levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and 25-OH vitamin-D3 in the study participants. Levels below 20 ng/ml were defined as vitamin D deficiency and levels of 20-30 ng/ml as insufficiency. There were no significant differences in age, gender distribution and levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone between the groups. The level of 25-OH vitamin-D3 in the patient group was significantly lower when compared to the control group (p < 0.05) (14.07 ± 8.12 and 23.38 ± 12.80 ng/ml, respectively). This difference also held true when evaluation was made according to seasonal evaluation (12.38 ± 6.53 and 17.64 ± 1.14 in shorter daylight and 18.71 ± 9.87 and 30.82 ± 1.04 in longer daylight).
Idiopathic Epilepsy at AboutKidsHealth
There are a variety of idiopathic epilepsy syndromes. Children with idiopathic epilepsy may have generalized or partial seizures.
Many, although not all, idiopathic epilepsy syndromes are benign and the child will eventually grow out of them.
Relatives of a child with idiopathic epilepsy often have a history of seizures.
What are other terms for idiopathic epilepsy?
An older term for idiopathic epilepsy is primary epilepsy. The terms “idiopathic epilepsy” and “cryptogenic epilepsy” are sometimes used interchangeably, especially in older books and articles.
What causes idiopathic epilepsy?
By definition, there is no apparent underlying cause of idiopathic epilepsy, such as a structural problem with the brain or a metabolic disorder. It is possible that idiopathic epilepsy is caused by tiny abnormalities at the cellular level. We are now learning that many, although not all, idiopathic epilepsy syndromes have an associated genetic component.
In most cases, the exact way in which epilepsy is inherited is unclear. However, some researchers estimate that genes could account for 70% to 90% of the tendency to develop epilepsy.
What epilepsy syndromes are idiopathic?
- benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS)
- childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms
- benign neonatal familial convulsions
- benign neonatal convulsions
- benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy
- childhood absence epilepsy
- juvenile absence epilepsy
- juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
How many other children have idiopathic epilepsy?
Idiopathic epilepsy is common; about 30% of childhood epilepsy is idiopathic.
Together, idiopathic and cryptogenic epilepsy account for 55% to 75% of cases of childhood epilepsy.
It is difficult to be precise, because different researchers define these terms differently.
How is idiopathic epilepsy treated?
Idiopathic epilepsy is treated with anti-epileptic drugs.
What is the outlook for a child with idiopathic epilepsy?
The outlook for a child with idiopathic epilepsy depends on the specific condition and how well the seizures respond to treatment.
Several idiopathic epilepsy syndromes, such as childhood absence epilepsy and BECTS, usually go away on their own.
With other syndromes, though, the child may need to take anti-epileptic drugs all his life.
Elizabeth J. Donner, MD, FRCPC, 2/4/2010
About one percent of Americans have some form of epilepsy, and nearly four percent (1 in 26) will develop epilepsy at some point in their lives. The number of Americans who have epilepsy is greater than the number who have multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral palsy combined.
Anti-epilepsy drugs are known to decrease Vitamin D levels, yet they still only recommend 400 IU - 2020
Should vitamin D supplementation routinely be prescribed to children receiving antiepileptic medication?
Download the PDF from sci-hub via VitaminDWiki
- Safety and tolerability of Vitamin D3 5000 IU/day in epilepsy April 2019
- "Median seizure frequency declined from 5.18 seizures per month to 3.64 seizures per month at 6 weeks and to 4.2 seizures per month at 12 weeks" doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.03.001
- Download the PDF from Sci-Hub via VitaminDWiki
- "Vitamin D3 for the Treatment of Epilepsy: Basic Mechanisms, Animal Models, and Clinical Trials" Dec 2016
- Bone Health and Vitamin D Status in Young Epilepsy Patients on Valproate Monotherapy April 2016
"Prevalence of low BMD (Z-score ≤−2.0) was 26% and 10% at lumbar spine, and 10% and 4% at femoral neck in epileptic and control groups respectively. No correlation was found between duration or dosage of VPA and BMDs. Vitamin D deficiency (≤20 ng/ml) was highly prevalent (>90%) in epilepsy patients and controls."
- The roles of vitamin B12 and vitamin D in children with intractable epilepsy Jan 2015
"a clear association between vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment and epilepsy was identified" full free text online
- Low vitamin D levels are common in patients with epilepsy Oct 2014
Due to antiepileptic drugs. full free text online
- Correction of vitamin D deficiency improves seizure control in epilepsy: A pilot study May 2012
"Median seizure reduction was 40%"
Loading dose then a maintenance dose of 2000 to 2600 IU daily
- Epilepsy and vitamin D: a comprehensive review of current knowledge Dec 2016, Behind a $42 paywall
Seyed Amir Miratashi Yazdi, Mehdi Abbasi, Seyed Masoud Miratashi Yazdi; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2016-0044.
"In this article, we review the possible relationship between vitamin D and epilepsy from different aspects, including the action mechanism of vitamin D in the central nervous system and ecological and epidemiological findings. We also present the outcome of studies that evaluated the level of vitamin D and the impact of administrating vitamin D in epileptic patients or animal subjects"
- http://www.epilepsy.org.au/resources/for-media/facts-statistics-about-epilepsy has such factoids as:
According to the World Health Organisation, epilepsy is the world's most common serious brain disorder
Epilepsy is more than three times as common as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease and cerebral palsy
It is commonly thought that epilepsy always involves convulsions.
In fact there are around 40 different types of epilepsy and epilepsy syndromes.
"More people live with epilepsy than with autism spectrum disorders, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy combined"
- Children with epilepsy advised to take vitamin D July 2013
But only enough vitamin D to deal with bone loss problems, not treat Epilepsy
- Association of Unintended Pregnancy With Spontaneous Fetal Loss in Women With Epilepsy JAMA Jan 2019
2X more likely to have fetal loss, no mention of low vitamin D due to Epilepsy drugs, 10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.3089
- Potential risk factors for vitamin D levels in medium- and long-term use of antiepileptic drugs in childhood June 2017
Vitamin D levels dropped 5 ng in 5 years (average time)
- Vitamin D supplementation for bone health in adults with epilepsy: A systematic review April 2018
1800 IU was not enough to help bones (review of 9 studies)
- Epilepsy and vitamin D: a comprehensive review of current knowledge Feb 2017
Seems like a comprehensive study, PDF is available free at Sci-Hub 0.1515/revneuro-2016-0044
Some graphics from the web
Incidence Doubling in a Decade
Update Dec 2016 - US Drug Enforcement Agency put CBD into the class of addicting drugs which include cocaine - so CBD is unlikely to stiil be on Amazon
- Marijuana Use in Epilepsy: The Myth and the Reality Aug 2015
Behind a paywall, but patients can get a copy of PDF for free
CBD is legal (vs THC) and is sold on Amazon.
One brand of CBD was named after the girl who's seizures reduced from 300/month to 1/month
- Cannabis helps my epileptic son. If only we had known sooner April 2016
Mother had refined Cannabis to make CBD,
Incorrectly believes that govt does not permit it,
- Can Cannabis Treat Epileptic Seizures? Scientific American Jan 2016
"Stories of cannabis’s abilities to alleviate seizures have been around for about 150 years . . "
"The researchers reported the intervention reduced motor seizures at a rate similar to existing drugs (a median of 36.5 percent) and 2 percent of patients became completely seizure free. Additionally, 79 percent of patients reported adverse effects such as sleepiness, diarrhea and fatigue, although only 3 percent dropped out of the study due to adverse events. "
- Update Dec 2016 US Drug Enforcement Agency has classifiedCBD as bad as Cocaine, heroin etc
Note: I am unaware of any cases of CBD addiction
Link has 219 pages of studies showing the benefits of CBD
Suspect that there are several types of Epilepsy, and that not all benefit from CBDNew title for this page April 2019. caused the visitor count to reset.
There have actually been
29826 visitors to this page since it was originally made
Epileptic children have low levels of vitamin D – VitaminDWiki
8138 visitors, last modified 20 Apr, 2021,This page is in the following categories (# of items in each category)Overviews 76 Meta-analysis of Vitamin D 508 Category 147 Epilepsy 14
ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads 15219 Safery and tolerability.pdf admin 10 Mar, 2021 16:12 175.79 Kb 49 15218 Epilepsy sci-hub 2017.pdf admin 10 Mar, 2021 16:04 934.59 Kb 50 15217 epilepsy clinical trial review sci-hub.pdf admin 10 Mar, 2021 15:23 540.68 Kb 40 14553 Epilepsy sci-hub.pdf PDF 2020 admin 10 Nov, 2020 17:11 249.02 Kb 135 13643 anti-epi.jpg admin 17 Mar, 2020 13:05 71.15 Kb 890 13642 Antiepileptic Drugs meta.pdf PDF 2020 admin 17 Mar, 2020 13:04 774.78 Kb 389 11724 Epilepsy Dec 2016.pdf admin 07 Apr, 2019 17:38 309.96 Kb 448 11723 Antiepileptic drug.jpg admin 07 Apr, 2019 14:36 88.08 Kb 285 7438 Epilepsy - 2016.pdf PDF 2016 admin 04 Dec, 2016 03:13 388.71 Kb 1588 6446 3 month trial.jpg admin 03 Mar, 2016 03:57 28.51 Kb 6937 6445 Epilepsy prevalance increasing.jpg admin 03 Mar, 2016 03:26 15.91 Kb 6770 6444 epilepsy statistics.jpg admin 03 Mar, 2016 03:26 30.84 Kb 5100 6443 Causes of epilepsy.jpg admin 03 Mar, 2016 03:25 25.24 Kb 7918 6065 Epidemiology of Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsies.pdf admin 18 Oct, 2015 23:19 68.36 Kb 1637