Endometrial tissue inside the uterus expands and then is shed during menstruation.
Sometimes the tissue attaches itself on the outside of the uterus or elsewhere in the body.
It continues to cycle in size with each menstrual cycle.
Normally the autoimmune system destroys these attachments.
There is some effort to call Endo an autoimmune disorder
Note: High-Dose Vitamin D combined with Magnesium and Omega-3 is claimed to treat 95% of all autoimmune disorders.
Table of contents
- Pubmed Update Fall 2019
- EVERY Vitamin D Receptor Activator appears to treat Endometriosis- Fall 2019
- Charts from Endostats.com Nov 2019
- Additional Endometriosis Fall 2019
- Diseases treated by High Dose Vitamin D + Magnesium + Omega-3 etc (Coimbra Protocol)
- Related: Fibroids Fall 2019
- Endometriosis is associated with low vitamin D – 67 year literature review – Oct 2013
- Correlation found between the size of ovarian endometriomas and Vitamin D - Nov 2016
- Endometriosis in rats reduced by a huge dose of Omega-3 - Dec 2016
- See also VitaminDWiki
- See also web
- See also PubMed - 2014-2015
- Endometriosis ==> other diseases (cormorbidity) - 2015
- Vitamin D Receptor and Autoimmune: items in both categories:
- Search PubMed for endometriosis (omega-3 OR "Vitamin d") 105 items as of Dec 2019
- Is there a Relationship Between Vitamin D and Endometriosis? An Overview of the Literature - 2019
- "More studies needed" doi: 10.2174/1381612825666190722095401
- Vitamin D and Endometrium: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Area of Research - Aug 2019 FREE PDF 10.3390/ijms19082320
- Endo 5X more likely if the woman avoids the sun - free PDF - cited by the following
- Epidemiology of endometriosis and its comorbidities - 2017: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2016.04.021
- Risk for and consequences of endometriosis: A critical epidemiologic review - 2018 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2018.06.001
- Prevalence and Symptomatic Burden of Diagnosed Endometriosis in the United States: National Estimates from a Cross-Sectional Survey of 59,411 Women - 2017 10.1159/000452660
- Analysis of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in women with and without endometriosis April 2011 - did NOT find an association doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2011.01.006 FREE PDF
- Effects of Vitamin D on Endometriosis-Related Pain: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial doi: 10.12659/MSM.901838 Dec 2016 FREE PDF
- Stress Influences the Vitamin D-Vitamin D Receptor System and Macrophages in an Animal Model of Endometriosis April 2016
- No Link Found Between Vitamin D and Endometriosis April 2018
- only a weak link would be expected if the problem is with the Vitamin D Receptor
Searched Google for endometriosis and Vitamin D Receptor activators
The following search results give strong hints that the Vitamin D Receptor is associated with Endo
- Natural Treatments for Endometriosis Oct 2019
- Progesterone Cream, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Ginger Tea, stress reduction includes Zinc & Magnesium
- Therapeutic Approaches of Resveratrol on Endometriosis via Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Angiogenic Pathways Feb 2019 FREE PDF
- The Use of Resveratrol as an Adjuvant Treatment of Pain in Endometriosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial April 2017 doi: 10.1210/js.2017-00053 FREE PDF
- Resveratrol and endometriosis: In vitro and animal studies and underlying mechanisms (Review) June 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.04.078
- A Supplement to Slow Endo? Quercitin Shows Promise March 2018
- 4 weeks, 21 of the 22 patients reported at least some improvement over the trial, with no negative side effects reported.
- Quercetin inhibits proliferation of endometriosis regulating cyclin D1 and its target microRNAs in vitro and in vivo doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.09.024 Jan 2019
- Turmeric (Curcumin): The Golden Spice in the fight against Endometriosis Feb 2018, 15 references
- Curcumin and endometriosis: Review on potential roles and molecular mechanisms doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.10.119 Jan 2018
- Curcumin inhibits endometriosis endometrial cells by reducing estradiol production - May 2013 FREE PDF
- The possible role of zinc in the etiopathogenesis of endometriosis - 2014 PMID: 25864256 -Endo associated with low Zinc
- Decreased zinc and increased lead blood levels are associated with endometriosis in Asian Women Dec 2017 doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.09.001.
- Endometriosis Part 1: Nutrient deficiencies
- " during menstruation women can lose up to half their magnesium supply."
- 4 Ways to Use Magnesium for Endometriosis Aug 2018
- Supplements for Endometriosis - Magnesium
- 13 Endometriosis Symptoms My Doctors Missed Magnesium etc.
- " magnesium deficiency and estrogen dominance go hand in hand, making my low magnesium yet another sign of my underlying endometriosis. Estrogen eats up magnesium, depleting it from the body"
- "Endometriosis grows in different places in different women. In can attach to the ovaries, the outside of the uterus, the pelvic wall, the appendix, the lungs, the brain, etc. "
- Efficacies of vitamin D and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on experimental endometriosis - Dec 2016 10.1016/j.tjog.2015.06.018 FREE PDF
Ginger - many examples on the web, example
- Endometriosis? 4 Herbs & Supplements That Can Really Help March 2018
- "Ginger root powder ... 500 mg 2-4 times/day has been shown to reduce pain equal to the effects of ibuprofen"
- VitaminDWiki: Dysmenorrhea substantially reduced by Ginger, just 1,000 IU Vitamin D also helped – RCT Nov 2019
- Secondary Dysmenorrhea is ude to Endometriosis
- Suspect that non-daily dosing of Vitamin D will be great for Endometriosis, as it is for scores of other health problems.
- A high concentration gradient appears to get over the Vitamin D Receptor barrier
- Progesterone Enhances Calcitriol Antitumor Activity by Upregulating Vitamin D Receptor Expression and Promoting Apoptosis in Endometrial Cancer Cells DOI: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-12-0493 July 2013
Patent application - The Use of Vitamin D to Treat Endometriosis - 2016
Note: A Patent is a good hint that something helps with a health problem.
Example: Vitamin D was patented to increase conception in all mammals (which it does)
Download the Patent PDF from VitaminDWiki
Some association of endo with the use of sunscreen
Wonder if women who have high Vitamin D and/or Omega-3 are less likely to get endometriosis?
Multiple Sclerosis (all types of MS), Arthritis Rheumatoid, Lupus, Lyme, Alopecia, Bronchitis, Depression, Crohn’s Disease, Endometriosis, Fibromyalgia, Hypertension, Infertility, Psoriasis, Ménière Syndromes, ADEM Syndromes, Sjögren, Vitiligo, Hashimoto and many others
- Fibroids Information extensive
- Vitamin D and Uterine Fibroids—Review of the Literature and Novel Concepts - July 2018, 10.3390/ijms19072051 FREE PDF
- Vitamin D deficiency in women with uterine fibroids versus Vitamin D deficiency in the general population - Nov 2018 DOI: 10.15761/COGRM.1000236 FREE PDF
- Evaluation of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 levels in patients with a fibroid uterus - Oct 2019 https://doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2019.1654986
- cases = 15 ng controls = 26 ng; Uterine fibroid size increased proportionately with decrease in 25-hydroxyvitaminD3 levels
- Natural Antioxidant Resveratrol Suppresses Uterine Fibroid Cell Growth and Extracellular Matrix Formation In Vitro and In Vivo - April 2019 doi: 10.3390/antiox8040099 FREE PDF
- "Benign uterine fibroids (UF), also known as myomas or leiomyomas, are the most common neoplasm of the uterus and occur in up to 77% of women by the onset of menopause in the United States " web
- (10 mg·of Resveratrol per kilogram (bodyweight or food weight?) for PREVENTION in mice and human tissue
- "Uterine fibroids are a common gynecologic condition among women and the primary reason for hysterectomy for US women. Over their lifetime, about 80 percent of black women and 70 percent of white women will develop fibroids. ... The rate of hospitalization for fibroids is three times higher for black women than white women
- Examining the Relationship Between Symptomatic Burden and Self-reported Productivity Losses Among Patients With Uterine Fibroids in the United States
- Oct 2017 DOI: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001105
- "4.4 hours due to employment-related presenteeism" online survey of US women between 18 and 54
- " In 33% of all hysterectomies, the reason for surgery is problems related to fibroid tumors"
- Patient-reported prevalence and symptomatic burden of uterine fibroids among women in the United States: findings from a cross-sectional survey analysis - June 2017 FREE PDF
*Why Fibroids Are Everyone’s Problem April 2015
Vitamin D in endometriosis: A causative or confounding factor?
Metabolism, October 2013
Lamia Sayegh a, Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan b, Anwar H. Nassara, an21 at aub.edu.lb
a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
b Department of Internal Medicine, Calcium Metabolism and Osteoporosis Program, WHO Collaborating Center for Metabolic Bone Disorders, Division of Endocrinology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
Objective: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence from studies that evaluated the relationship between vitamin D and endometriosis.
Design: Comprehensive review.
Materials and Methods” Systematic literature search in Medline for relevant publications from 1946 until June 2013.
Results: Endometriosis risk may be influenced by dietary vitamin D intake and plasma hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Vitamin D receptor and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, 24-hydroxylase and 1-α hydroxylase, are found in the normal cycling endometrium and also in the eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis. The endometrium is a target of 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D actions through regulation of specific genes and via immunomodulation. The endometrium in endometriosis expresses dysregulation of some vitamin D enzymes and receptors. If vitamin D and its metabolites are implicated in endometriosis-associated infertility, it is likely through interference with HOXA10 gene expression. The Gc2 phenotype of vitamin D binding protein is prevalent in women with endometriosis and may be implicated in its pathogenesis. In a mouse model, Elocalcitol, a VDR-agonist was shown to reduce the development of endometriotic lesions and recurrence.
Conclusion: A biological plausibility for a role of vitamin D, as an immunomodulator and anti-inflammatory agent, in the pathogenesis and treatment of endometriosis is suggested in this article, but is difficult to illustrate due to sparse evidence from human studies limited primarily to case–control studies. A significant knowledge gap precludes the establishment of a clear cause–effect relationship. The intriguing leads presented herein need to be investigated further with placebo-controlled supplementation trials.
Ovarian endometriosis and vitamin D serum levels.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2016 Nov 4:1-4. [Epub ahead of print]
Ciavattini A1, Serri M1, Delli Carpini G1, Morini S1, Clemente N1.
The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D serum level in women with ovarian endometriosis; specifically, a possible correlation between the dimensions of ovarian endometriomas and vitamin D serum levels was evaluated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This was an observational study of childbearing-age women diagnosed with singleton ovarian endometrioma from January 2015 to December 2015. Women diagnosed with multiple ovarian endometriomas or extraovarian endometriosis were excluded.
Forty-nine women constituted the initial study cohort. In these women, the mean (±SD) 25-OH-D3 serum level was 22.0 (±8.9) ng/ml, and 42 of them (85.7%) were diagnosed with hypovitaminosis D. In the "hypovitaminosis D women", the mean (± SD) diameter of ovarian endometriomas was 40.2 ± 22.6 mm, while in the "normal vitamin D serum level women" it was 26.7 ± 12.1 mm (p = 0.1). However, a significant linear correlation between 25-OH-D3 serum level and the diameter of ovarian endometriomas was found (r = -0.3, p = 0.03).
We found a relatively high rate of women with ovrian endometriosis and hypovitaminosis D. Interestingly, a significant linear correlation between 25-OH-D3 serum levels and the diameter of ovarian endometrioma emerged.
PMID: 27809683 DOI: 10.1080/09513590.2016.1239254 Publisher wants $54 to rent the PDF
Efficacies of vitamin D and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on experimental endometriosis
Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 55, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages 835–839, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2015.06.018
Alpaslan Akyola, Memet Şimşeka, Raşit İlhana, Behzat Cana, Melike Baspinara, Hadice Akyolb, H. Fatih Gülc, Ferit Gürsuc, Burçin Kavaka, Mustafa Akınd
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (vitamin D) and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) on experimentally induced endometriosis in a rat model.
Materials and Methods: A prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled experimental study was performed on 30 Wistar female rats. Endometriosis was surgically induced by implanting endometrial tissue on the abdominal peritoneum. Four weeks later, a second laparotomy was performed to assess pre-treatment implant volumes and cytokine levels. The rats were randomized into three groups: vitamin D group (42 μg/kg/day), omega-3 PUFA group (450 mg/kg/day), and control group (saline 0.1 mL/rat/day). These treatments were administered for 4 weeks. At the end of treatment, a third laparotomy was performed for the assessment of cytokine levels, implant volumes (post-treatment) and implants were totally excised for histopathologic examination. Pre- and post-treatment volumes, cytokine levels within the groups, as well as stromal and glandular tissues between the groups were compared.
Results: The mean post-treatment volume was statistically significantly reduced in the omega-3 PUFA group (p = 0.02) and the level of the interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the peritoneal fluid were significantly decreased at the end of treatment in the omega-3 PUFA group (p = 0.02, p = 0.03, and p = 0.03, respectively). In the vitamin D group, only IL-6 levels were significantly decreased. In the histopathologic examination, the glandular tissue and stromal tissue scores of the implants were significant lower in the omega-3 PUFA group (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02).
Conclusion: Omega-3 PUFA caused significant regression of endometriotic implants. Vitamin D has not been as effective as omega-3 PUFA on endometriosis.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
- Endometriosis, Endometrial Cancer, and poor Vitamin D or Receptor – Aug 2018
- Endometriosis 24 percent less likely if high predicted vitamin D level – Feb 2013
- Menstrual Pain reduced by vitamin D – RCT 2012, 2014, 2016
- Overview Women and Vitamin D
- All items in category Women and vitamin D
- Inflammation category listing has
124 items along with related searches
- Overview: Omega-3 many benefits include helping vitamin D Omega-3 appears to reduce Inflammation/Endometriosis
- Overview Fibromyalgia or Chronic Fatigue and vitamin D - perhaps some similarity with Endo.
- Vitamin D and fertility: a systematic review – May 2012 has the following chart
Women category in VitaminDWiki starts with the following
- Pregnancy category listing has
724 items along with related searches
- Infant-Child category listing has
578 items along with related searches
- Cancer - Breast category listing has
217 items along with related searches
- Fertility and sperm category listing has
104 items along with related searches
- Cancer - Ovarian category listing has
18 items along with related searches
- Calcium and Vitamin D category listing has
186 items along with related searches
Excessive Calcium supplementation is very bad for the body, and not needed by your bones
- Search for HRT OR "hormone replacement therapy" 301 items as of Jan 2019
- Search for PCOS 248 as of April 2018
- Search for VAGINOSIS 271 as of April 2018
- Search for UTI OR "URINARY TRACT INFECTION" 367 items as of Jan 2019
- PMS decreased when Vitamin D was added
- Endometriosis treated, and perhaps prevented, by vitamin D and Omega-3 - updated Fall 2019
- Every one of top 10 female health problems is associated with low Vitamin D
- Overview Women and Vitamin D
Wikipedia - 2019
- Endometriosis symptoms include pelvic inflammatory disease, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and fibromyalgia
- Tentative evidence suggests that the use of combined oral contraceptives reduces the risk of endometriosis.
- Note by VitaminDWiki - oral contraceptives are one of the few things which INCREASE Vitamin D levels
- Endometriosis was documented in medical texts more than 4,000 years ago
Vitamin D: how can it help manage my Endometriosis June 2018
Many of the Endometriosis follow-on problems are associated with low vitamin D
Endometriosis has been increasing with time (along with decrease in Vitamin D and Omega-3)
Behind a paywall
- Vitamin D and benign gynecological diseases: a critical analysis of the current evidence. Nov 2015 - behind a $52 paywall
- Potential impact of maternal vitamin D status on obstetric well-being June 2015
- "Human and animal data suggest that low VD status is associated with impaired fertility, endometriosis, and polycystic ovary syndrome."
- Vitamin D intake and endometriosis: the good and the bad June 2014
- Vitamin D in endometriosis: A causative or confounding factor? Jan 2014
- Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Endometriosis Sept 2015 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization
- "Women with high serum EPA levels were 82% less likely to have endometriosis compared to women with low EPA levels (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.78)"
- Endometriosis, dysmenorrhoea and diet July 2013
- "One large study (n=70,709) found a relatively strong association between endometriosis and trans-fatty acid consumption, and a lower risk of endometriosis with increased consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids."
- Effects of Vitamin D on Endometriosis-Related Pain: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial Dec 2016
- 50,000 IU weekly for 12 weeks. Endometriosis-Related Pain reduction was not statistically significant
- Most Iranian women have very low levels of vitamin D.
- It is doubtful that their vitamin D levels got above 40 nanograms - study provided no data
-  Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
- Epidemiology of endometriosis and its comorbidities - Feb 2017 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2016.04.021
- Many of the risk factors are also associated with low Vitamin D
- early age at menarche,. pigmentary traits, sun habits, alcohol intake
- High prevalence of autoimmune diseases in women with endometriosis: a case-control study - Aug 2019 https://doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2019.1655727
- CD: 15 with Endo, 1 otherwise; autoimmune thyroiditis: 80 endo, 14 otherwise
- - - - - - - - - - - -
In a recent comprehensive review we suggest that endometriosis may be associated with a higher risk of several chronic diseases.
While the underlying mechanisms of endometriosis are not yet understood, the available data to date suggest that endometriosis may have important long-term health consequences, which – if confirmed in future well-conducted studies – will have important implications in the management and care of women with endometriosis.
Over recent decades, endometriosis has been associated with the risk of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, asthma or allergic manifestations, and cardiovascular diseases.
Because the underlying mechanisms for these relations are not known, a deeper understanding is needed as it may lead to novel discoveries on the causes or consequences of endometriosis.
Our research group, led by Dr Stacey Missmer at Harvard University, examined the existing scientific literature to summarise the current evidence on chronic disease risk in women with endometriosis .
We also explored the potential explanations for these associations and formulated methodological recommendations for future studies.
Endometriosis and the risk of cancer
While endometriosis has a benign nature, some evidence suggests a potential association between endometriosis and the risk of some cancers. The disease has even been suggested to share some characteristics with malignant tumours, such as invasion of local and distant organs, abnormal tissue growth, dysfunction of target organs, and genetic damage .
This review suggests that women with endometriosis are generally at higher risk of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and skin melanoma, but that they are at decreased risk of cervical cancer.
NOTE: In reviewing available evidence both the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Guidelines  and the World Endometriosis Society Montpellier Consortium Consensus  do not call for routine screening of women with endometriosis for cancer.
All women should be vigilant of any changes in their bodies, and should seek medical help if they have suggestive symptoms.
Ovarian cancer The association with ovarian cancer was the most consistent across studies: out of the 21 studies reviewed, 20 reported an association [5-24]. The available data suggest that the relation is restricted to the endometrioid and clear-cell subtypes of ovarian cancer [20, 22] – rare types of ovarian cancer. It must be emphasised that the overall risk is low.
Breast cancer Among other gynaecological cancers, 14 studies were reviewed on endometriosis and breast cancer: while six of them reported a modest increase in breast cancer risk in women with endometriosis [7, 8, 15, 16, 25, 26], four others reported no association [24, 27-29], and four even reported a decreased breast cancer risk associated with endometriosis [10, 13, 30, 31]. Overall this is inconclusive, based on current evidence.
Endometrial and cervical cancer Results for endometrial cancer were conflicting; however, it is important to note the low numbers of cases in the eight studies reviewed [7, 8, 10, 15, 16, 24, 32]. Despite even lower numbers for cervical cancer, however, the four studies that evaluated this association all reported a decreased risk in women with endometriosis [7, 8, 15, 16]. It is possible that this is due to women with endometriosis being vigilant about regular examinations by their gynaecologist.
Melanoma skin cancer Among non-gynaecological cancers, melanoma skin cancer has been the most studied in relation to a history of endometriosis. Out of the 12 studies that explored this topic, seven suggested a positive association [10, 13, 15, 16, 33-35], while five studies reported no clear relation between endometriosis and melanoma risk [8, 28, 36-38], so the evidence is mostly inconclusive.
Other cancers Explorations of associations with other cancers have been sparse; consequently, no firm conclusions can be drawn to date as to the subsequent risk of other malignant tumours in women with endometriosis.
Endometriosis and autoimmune diseases
An autoimmune disease is a disorder that occurs when the body’s immune system attacks and damages its own tissue. This type of condition may affect one or more organs or tissue types, and it has been shown to more frequently affect women than men .
While endometriosis is not itself an autoimmune disease, our review found nine studies that suggest that women with endometriosis may be at higher risk of several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus [40, 41], Sjögren’s syndrome [40, 41], multiple sclerosis [40, 41], rheumatoid arthritis , inflammatory bowel diseases (such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) , and coeliac disease .
Endometriosis and asthma and allergic manifestations
Based on the review of six studies on the topic [40, 44-48], the available evidence suggests that women with endometriosis may be more susceptible to allergic manifestations (eg. eczema, hay fever, food sensitivities, allergies to medication) and to allergy-related conditions such as asthma.
Endometriosis and cardiovascular diseases Among the four studies that investigated a possible relation between endometriosis and cardiovascular diseases, two reported significantly lower flow-mediation dilation (ie. lower ability of the artery to dilate in response to a shear stress) in women with endometriosis as compared with controls [49, 50], while another study found no evidence of a significant difference in carotid intima-media thickness (ie. the thickness of the innermost two layers of the carotid artery’s wall) .
However, the only large-scale epidemiological study on the topic, conducted in the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort, showed increased risks of myocardial infarction, angina, and surgical treatment of the coronary artery in women with endometriosis .
Potential explanations for these associations
While the exact mechanisms underlying these associations are unknown, the co-occurrence of endometriosis and other disease outcomes may reflect at least four potential explanations:
- Previous studies may have reported spurious associations due to methodological bias. First, the exploration of the subsequent risk of chronic diseases in women with endometriosis carries a number of methodological complexities, which, if not tackled appropriately, may lead to biased conclusions.
For instance, the difficulty to characterise endometriosis and some chronic diseases (e.g. autoimmune diseases) accurately in large-scale population-based studies, or recall bias from women in studies relying on self-reported diagnosis, could lead to systematic errors in the definition of the disease status of study subjects, which in turn may alter the results in an unpredictable direction.
- Endometriosis may induce physiological changes that increase the risk of some chronic diseases However, it is possible that some consequences of endometriosis (such as infertility, chronic inflammation, aberrant hormonal and immunologic responses, or lifestyle changes associated with disease diagnosis) influence the long-term risk of other diseases.
For example, chronic inflammation in the pelvic cavity may influence a woman’s risk of ovarian cancer. However, deeper research is needed in order to investigate the physiological pathways that may link endometriosis consequences to chronic disease risk.
- Endometriosis may share common risk factors with some chronic diseases. Another possibility is that endometriosis and the studied chronic diseases share common risk factors, whether they are already known or not. All or part of the observed associations could thus simply reflect a correlation of factors.
In this case, this research may allow the discovery of novel risk factors for endometriosis and/or the studied chronic disease. For example, the investigation of an association between endometriosis and melanoma skin cancer helped to discover a novel risk profile for women with endometriosis, who were shown to be more likely to have moles [36, 53-56] and/or a sun-sensitive pigmentary profile (i.e. poor tanning ability [54-56], red hair [34, 57, 58], fair eyes [56, 59], or freckling [55, 56]) than women without endometriosis.
- Treatment for endometriosis could be associated with some chronic diseases. Finally, it is also possible that these associations reflect an underlying relation between treatment(s) for endometriosis and the risk of these chronic diseases.
However, little of the research reviewed accounted for this possibility in the analyses.
Endometriosis and potential co-morbidities
In conclusion, the available data to date suggest that women with endometriosis may represent a high-risk group for a number of chronic diseases.
However, given the methodological complexities associated with this research and a general lack of detailed data on endometriosis in previous studies, further research is needed in order to increase our understanding of this disease, for which the causes are largely unknown to date.
If relationships between endometriosis and chronic diseases are confirmed, these findings will have important implications in the management and care of women with endometriosis.
- KvaskoffM, et al. Endometriosis: a high-risk population for major chronic diseases? Hum Reprod Update 2015;21(4):500-516.
- Garry R. Endometriosis: an invasive disease. Gynecological Endoscopy 2001;10:79-82.
- Dunselman GA, et al. ESHRE guideline: management of women with endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2014;29(3):400-12.
- Johnson NP, et al. Consensus on current management of endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2013;28(6):1552-68.
- Aris A. Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer: A ten-year cohort study of women living in the Estrie Region of Quebec, Canada. J Ovarian Res 2010;3:2.
- Bodmer M, et al. Use of metformin and the risk of ovarian cancer: a case-control analysis. Gynecol Oncol 2011;123(2):200-4.
- Borgfeldt C and Andolf E. Cancer risk after hospital discharge diagnosis of benign ovarian cysts and endometriosis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004;83(4):395-400.
- Brinton L.A, et al. Cancer risk after a hospital discharge diagnosis of endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;176(3):572-9.
- Brinton LA, et al. Ovarian cancer risk associated with varying causes of infertility. Fertil Steril 2004;82(2):405-14.
- Brinton LA, et al. Causes of infertility as predictors of subsequent cancer risk. Epidemiology 2005;16(4):500-7.
- Buis CC, et al. Increased risk for ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumours in subfertile women with endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2013;28(12):3358-69
- Cottreau CM, et al. Endometriosis and its treatment with Danazol or Lupron in relation to ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2003;9(14):5142-4.
- Gemmill JA, et al. Cancers, infections, and endocrine diseases in women with endometriosis. Fertil Steril 2010;94(5):1627-31.
- Kobayashi H, et al. Risk of developing ovarian cancer among women with ovarian endometrioma: a cohort study in Shizuoka, Japan. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2007;17(1):37-43.
- Melin A, et al. The risk of cancer and the role of parity among women with endometriosis. Hum Reprod, 2007;22(11):3021-6.
- Melin A, et al. Endometriosis and the risk of cancer with special emphasis on ovarian cancer. Hum Reprod 2006;21(5):1237-42.
- Merritt MA, et al. Talcum powder, chronic pelvic inflammation and NSAIDs in relation to risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer 2008;122(1):170-6.
- Modugno F, et al. Oral contraceptive use, reproductive history, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in women with and without endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191(3):733-40.
- Nagle CM, et al. Endometrioid and clear cell ovarian cancers: a comparative analysis of risk factors. Eur J Cancer 2008;44(16):2477-84.
- Ness RB, et al. Infertility, fertility drugs, and ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of case-control studies. Am J Epidemiol 2002;155(3):217-24.
- Ness RB, et al. Factors related to inflammation of the ovarian epithelium and risk of ovarian cancer. Epidemiol 2000;11(2):111-7.
- Pearce CL, et al. Association between endometriosis and risk of histological subtypes of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of case-control studies. Lancet Oncol 2012;13(4):385-94.
- Rossing MA, et al. Risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in relation to benign ovarian conditions and ovarian surgery. Cancer Causes Control 2008;19(10):1357-64.
- Venn A, et al. Risk of cancer after use of fertility drugs with in-vitro fertilisation. Lancet 1999;354(9190):1586-90.
- Moseson M, et al. The influence of medical conditions associated with hormones on the risk of breast cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1993;22(6):1000-9.
- Schairer C, et al. Breast cancer risk associated with gynecologic surgery and indications for such surgery. Int J Cancer 1997;70(2):150-4.
- Bertelsen L, et al. Risk for breast cancer among women with endometriosis. Int J Cancer 2007;120(6):1372-5.
- Olson JE, et al. Postmenopausal cancer risk after self-reported endometriosis diagnosis in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer 2002;94(5):1612-8.
- Weiss HA, et al. Breast cancer risk in young women and history of selected medical conditions. Int J Epidemiol 1999;28(5):816-23.
- Baron JA, et al. Metabolic disorders and breast cancer risk (United States).Cancer Causes Control 2001;2(10):875-80.
- Matta JL, et al. Women with endometriosis have a higher DNA repair capacity and diminished breast cancer risk. Mol Cancer Biol 2013;1(1).
- Zucchetto A, et al. Hormone-related factors and gynecological conditions in relation to endometrial cancer risk. Eur J Cancer Prev 2009;18(4):316-21.
- KvaskoffM, et al. Personal history of endometriosis and risk of cutaneous melanoma in a large prospective cohort of French women. Arch Intern Med 2007;167(19):2061-5.
- Wyshak G and Frisch RE. Red hair color, melanoma, and endometriosis: suggestive associations. Int J Dermatol 2000;39(10):798.
- Wyshak G, et al. Reproductive factors and melanoma of the skin among women. Int J Dermatol 1989;28(8):527-30.
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