Semin Ophthalmol. 2017 Sep 6:1-6. doi: 10.1080/08820538.2017.1358752. [Epub ahead of print]
Kizilgul M1,2, Kan S1, Ozcelik O1, Beysel S1, Apaydin M1, Ucan B1, Cakal E1.
1 Dept. of Endocrinology & Metabolism , Diskapi Training and Research Hospital , Ankara , Turkey.
2 Schulze Diabetes Institute , U. of Minnesota , Minneapolis , Minnesota , USA.
Doubt that the intramuscular injection method was important
- Tears often have 25 % higher levels of vitamin D than does blood
- Omega-3 reduced dry eye (computer related) by 3X - RCT June 2015
- Myopia, dry eye and Vitamin D – PhD 2017
- Dry eyes associated with low vitamin D
“200,000 IU Vitamin D injection reduced most measures of dry eye - Sept 2016”
Tear Film Osmolarity: Determination of a Referent for Dry Eye Diagnosis Oct 2016, free PDF online, has the following chart, Red was added by VitaminDWiki
Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem worldwide. Many parts of the human eye, including the epithelium of the cornea, lens, ciliary body, and retinal pigment epithelium, as well as the corneal endothelium, ganglion cell layer, and retinal photoreceptors, contain vitamin D receptor (VDR). Dry eye is also a common health problem. An adequate tear film is required for maintaining health and function of the eye. Tear hyperosmolarity is considered to be the cause of ocular surface inflammation, symptoms, and tissue damage. It is well-documented that vitamin D has an anti-inflammatory action. We aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D replacement on tear osmolarity in patients with vitamin D deficiency.
A total of 44 patients (38 females, six males, mean age:43.5 ± 12.8 years) with vitamin D deficiency currently managed by the Endocrinology and Metabolism Department of Diskapi Training and Research Hospital in Turkey were enrolled in the study.
Patients were given 50,000 units of 25(OH)D3 intramuscularly, once weekly, over a period of eight weeks. All of the patients underwent tear function osmolarity (TFO) measurement initially and eight weeks after vitamin D replacement. Demographic, anthropometric, and biochemistry data of patients were recorded.
The mean TFO was significantly decreased (313.7 ± 17.3 mOsm/L; 302.7 ± 14.2 mOsm/L, p<0.001) at the end of the second month; 25(OH)D3 concentrations increased from 8.3 ± 3.5 ng/mL to 68.8 ± 22.3 ng/mL (p<0.001). The mean levels of hsCRP, FPG, P were 2.5 ± 2.5 mg/L, 5.09 ± 0.48 mmol/L, 1.06 ± 0.16 mmol/L initially, and 3.8 ± 5.9 mg/L, 5.11 ± 0.68 mg/dL, 1.09 ± 0.16 mmol/L after vitamin D replacement, respectively (p>0.05). The mean Ca level was 2.37 ± 0.07 mmol/L initially and 2.35 ± 0.07 mmol/L after vitamin D replacement (p<0.05). The change of TFO was negatively correlated with the variation of 25(OH)D3 before and after replacement in patients with dry eye disease (r=-0.390, p=0.049).
As a consequence of the presence of VDR and 1α-hydroxylase in different parts of the eye, vitamin D replacement improves tear hyperosmolarity that is considered to be induced by ocular surface inflammation.
PMID: 28876961 DOI: 10.1080/08820538.2017.1358752