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Dieters lost 5 more pounds if achieved more than 32 ng of vitamin D – RCT March 2014

Vitamin D3 supplementation during weight loss: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Mar 12.
Mason C1, Xiao L, Imayama I, Duggan C, Wang CY, Korde L, McTiernan A.
Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (CM, LX, II, CD, C-YW, LK, and AM), and the Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health (AM), the Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health (CYW), and the Department of Medicine (LK), University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with obesity; whether repletion supports weight loss and changes obesity-related biomarkers is unknown.

OBJECTIVE: We compared 12 mo of vitamin D3 supplementation with placebo on weight, body composition, insulin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in postmenopausal women in a weight-loss intervention.

A total of 218 overweight/obese women (50-75 y of age) with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≥10 ng/mL but <32 ng/mL were randomly assigned to weight loss + 2000 IU oral vitamin D3/d or weight loss + daily placebo. The weight-loss intervention included a reduced-calorie diet (10% weight loss goal) and 225 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity. Mean 12-mo changes in weight, body composition, serum insulin, CRP, and 25(OH)D were compared between groups (intent-to-treat) by using generalized estimating equations.

A total of 86% of participants completed the 12-mo measurements. The mean (95% CI) change in 25(OH)D was 13.6 (11.6, 15.4) ng/mL in the vitamin D3 arm compared with -1.3 (-2.6, -0.3) ng/mL in the placebo arm (P < 0.0001). Changes in weight [-7.1 (-8.7, -5.7) compared with -7.4 (-8.1, -5.4) kg], body mass index (in kg/m2: both -2.8), waist circumference [-4.9 (-6.7, -2.9) compared with -4.5 (-5.6, -2.6) cm], percentage body fat [-4.1 (-4.9, -2.9) compared with -3.5 (-4.5, -2.5)], trunk fat [-4.1 (-4.7, -3.0) compared with -3.7 (-4.3, -2.9) kg], insulin [-2.5 (-3.4, -1.7) compared with -2.4 (-3.3, -1.4) μU/mL], and CRP [-0.9 (-1.2, -0.6) compared with -0.79 (-0.9, -0.4) mg/mL] were similar between groups (all P > 0.05).

Compared with women who achieved 25(OH)D <32 ng/mL, women randomly assigned to vitamin D who became replete (ie, 25(OH)D ≥32 ng/mL)

  • lost more weight [-8.8 (-11.1, -6.9) compared with -5.6 (-7.2, -5.0) kg; P = 0.05],
  • waist circumference [-6.6 (-9.3, -4.3) compared with -2.5 (-4.6, -2.0) cm; P = 0.02], and
  • percentage body fat [-4.7 (-6.1, -3.5) compared with -2.6 (-3.9, -2.2); P = 0.04].

Among women with complete pill counts (97% adherence), the mean decrease in CRP was 1.18 mg/mL (46%) in the vitamin D arm compared with 0.46 mg/mL (25%) in the placebo arm (P = 0.03).

Vitamin D3 supplementation during weight loss did not increase weight loss or associated factors compared with placebo; however, women who became replete experienced greater improvements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01240213.
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Google Scholar found that this paper was cited 116 times as of Jan 2021

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Summary by VitaminDWiki

Postmenopausal overweight women were on dietary restriction plan for 1 year, with exercise
Some of the women had 2,000 IU of vitamin D added to their diet
Any woman who achieved > 32 ng of vitamin D ended up losing an addtional 5 lbs of weight

Comments by VitaminDWiki

  1. A majority of people who are overweight need > 2,000 IU to achieve > 32 ng of vitamin D
  2. A Loading dose of 200,000 to 400,000 IU reduces by about 3 months the time to get to > 32 ng

Speculation by Dr. Williamson

Since vitamin D is stored in fat, perhaps with higher levels of vitamin D in your system your body does not need so much storage capacity (fat)

Another possibility: those who lost more weight increased their levels of vitamin D

It is well known that as fat is lost that vitamin D levels increase.

See also VitaminDWiki

Overview Obesity and Vitamin D contains the following summary

Dieters lost 5 more pounds if achieved more than 32 ng of vitamin D – RCT March 2014        
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