Lower prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is associated with higher risk of insulin-requiring diabetes: a nested case-control study.
Diabetologia. 2012 Sep 7.
Gorham ED, Garland CF, Burgi AA, Mohr SB, Zeng K, Hofflich H, Kim JJ, Ricordi C.
Naval Health Research Center, 140 Sylvester Road, San Diego, CA, 92106-3521, USA, Edward.Gorham at med.navy.mil.
Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration may increase risk of insulin-requiring diabetes.
A nested case-control study was performed using serum collected during 2002-2008 from military service members. One thousand subjects subsequently developed insulin-requiring diabetes. A healthy control was individually matched to each case on blood-draw date (±2 days), age (±3 months), length of service (±30 days) and sex. The median elapsed time between serum collection and first diagnosis of diabetes was 1 year (range 1 month to 10 years). Statistical analysis used matched pairs and conditional logistic regression.
ORs for insulin-requiring diabetes by quintile of serum 25(OH)D, from lowest to highest, were 3.5 (95% CI 2.0, 6.0), 2.5 (1.5, 4.2), 0.8 (0.4, 1.4), 1.1 (0.6, 2.8) and 1.0 (reference) (p (trend) <0.001). The quintiles (based on fifths using serum 25(OH)D concentration in the controls) of serum 25(OH)D in nmol/l, were <43 (median 28), 43-59 (median 52), 60-77 (median 70), 78-99 (median 88) and ?100 (median 128).
Individuals with lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations had higher risk of insulin-requiring diabetes than those with higher concentrations. A 3.5-fold lower risk was associated with a serum 25(OH)D concentration ?60 nmol/l.