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Depression reduced if take more than 5,000 IU of vitamin D daily – umbrella meta-analysis – Jan 2023

Vitamin D protects against depression: Evidence from an umbrella meta-analysis on interventional and observational meta-analyses

Pharmacological Research Volume 187, January 2023, 106605 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2022.106605
Vali Musazadeh a,b, Majid Keramati a,b, Faezeh Ghalichi a,c, Zeynab Kavyani a,b, Zohre Ghoreishi d, Kamar Allayl Alras e, Naryman Albadawi f, Abdullah Salem e, Mohamed Ismail Albadawi g, Raghad Salem h, Ahmed Abu-Zaid e,i,*,1, Meysam Zarezadeh a,c, Rania A. Mekary j,

Meta-analyses of interventional and observational studies investigating the efficacy and the relationship between vitamin D and depression provided inconsistent results. The current umbrella meta-analysis was conducted to assess the available evidence and provide a conclusive outcome in this regard. The following international databases were systematically searched till March 2022: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Random-effects model was carried out to calculate the pooled point estimates and their respective 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Ten meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) revealed significant reduction in depression symptoms comparing participants on vitmain D supplements to those on placebo (Pooled standardised mean difference: − 0.40; 95 % CI: − 0.60, − 0.21, p < 0.01: I2 = 89.1 %, p < 0.01). Four meta-analyses of cohort studies (with one having two subgroups) revealed that participants with lower levels of serum vitamin D were at increased odds of depression than those with higher levels of serum vitamin D (Pooled odds ratio: 1.60; 95 % CI: 1.08, 2.36, p < 0.01; I2 = 91.3 %, p < 0.01).
The present umbrella meta-analysis confirms the potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation and higher serum vitamin D levels in reducing the development and symptoms of depression.

The present umbrella meta-analysis confirms the potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in reducing symptoms of depression and an inverse relationship between higher serum levels of vitamin D and overall depression. Vitamin D supplementation in studies using dosage of > 5000 IU/day and intervention duration of ≤ 20-weeks exhibited better effects in lowering depression symptoms. Moreover, a greater risk of depression was shown among participants aged ≤ 50 with lower serum vitamin D levels.
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