Risk Factors for Failed Supplementation
The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 9(1), 2325967120975100 DOI: 10.1177/2325967120975100
Alexander E. Weber,*1" MD, Ioanna K. Bolia,t MD, MS, PhD, Shane Korber,1" MD,
Cory K. Mayfield,t MD, Adam Lindsay,t MD, Jared Rosen,t ATC, Sean McMannes,t ATC, Russ Romano,t ATC, James E. Tibone,t MD, and Seth C. Gamradt,t MD
Investigation performed at USC Epstein Family Center for Sports Medicine at Keck Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California, USA
50,000 IU of vitamin D taken weekly for a year
Success rate D3 was similar to the failure rate of D2
1) D2 is less effective than D3 when given daily
2) D2 half life is <1 week (vs >3 weeks for D3)
Vitamin D3 instead of D2 category in VitaminDWiki starts withSome of the
- Overview Vitamin D3 not D2
- Physicians Desk Reference still only lists D2, but not Vitamin D3 – Feb 2022
- Vitamin D3 better than D2, especially if non-daily or high dose - meta-analysis Sept 2021
- It’s Time to Say “Goodbye” to Vitamin D2 - 2015
- Vitamin D2 decreases levels of D3 (again) and visa versa – RCT Jan 2019
- It’s (way past) time to stop prescribing with Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) – Oct 2018
- If you have a vitamin D prescription, be sure that it is for D3– June 2017
- Vitamin D reduces risk of cause specific death, unless it is D2 – meta-analysis BMJ April 2014
- Vitamin D2 should not be used as a Vitamin supplement for any mammal – Oct 2006
- Loading dose of Vitamin D2 REDUCED vitamin D blood in a third of the patients – Jan 2015
It appears the the NCAA recommended D3, but the individual physicians switched it to D2
Wonder how many more years D2 will be pr4escribed
Note: Vets decided long ago that D2 should NEVER to give to any mammal
- D2 caused too many problems, and provided much less benefit
50,000 IU weekly not be enough for Blacks
Approximately 70% of blacks appear to need more
Perhaps whites should take additional capsule once a month and blacks twice a month
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Background: Monitoring vitamin D levels in athletes and determining their response to supplementation in cases of deficiency is thought to be necessary to modulate the risks associated with vitamin D deficiency.
Hypothesis/Purpose: To report the results of a 5-year-long surveillance program of vitamin D in the serum of football players on a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I team and to examine whether factors including age, body mass index (BMI), race, position played, and supplement type would affect the response to 12-month oral vitamin D replacement therapy in athletes with deficiency. We hypothesized that yearly measurements would decrease the proportion of athletes with vitamin D insufficiency over the years and that the aforementioned factors would affect the response to the supplementation therapy. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.
Methods: We measured serum 25(OH)D levels (25-hydroxyvitamin D) in 272 NCAA Division I football players from our institution annually between 2012 and 2017. Athletes with insufficient vitamin D levels (<32 ng/mL) received supplementation with vitamin D3 alone or combined vitamin D3/D2. The percentage of insufficient cases between the first 2 years and last 2 years of the program was compared, and yearly team averages of vitamin D levels were calculated. Associations between player parameters (age, BMI, race, team position, supplement type) and failed supplementation were evaluated.
Results: The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency decreased significantly during the study period, from 55.5% in 2012-2013 to 30.7% in 2016-2017 (P = .033). The mean 25(OH)D level in 2012 was 36.3 ng/mL, and this increased to 40.5 ng/mL in 2017 (P < .001); however, this increase was not steady over the study period. Non-Hispanic athletes and quarterbacks had the highest average 25(OH)D levels, and Black players and running backs had the lowest overall levels. There were no significant differences in age, BMI, race, or playing position between athletes with and without failed vitamin D supplementation. Athletes receiving vitamin D3 alone had a more successful rate of conversion (48.15%) than those receiving combined vitamin D3/D2 (22.22%; P = .034).
Conclusion: To decrease the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in football players, serum vitamin D measurements should be performed at least once a year, and oral supplementation therapy should be provided in cases of deficiency. Black players might be at increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency. Oral vitamin D3 may be more effective in restoring vitamin D levels than combined vitamin D3/D2 therapy.
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