Concentration levels of serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin-D and vitamin D deficiency among children and adolescents of India: a descriptive cross-sectional study
BMC Pediatr. 2021 Aug 6;21(1):334. doi: 10.1186/s12887-021-02803-z.
Akif Mustafa 1, Chander Shekhar 2
90% of Sikh youths have <20 ng of Vitamin D
Background: Vitamin D is an essential micronutrient for the overall health and well-being of individuals. For strong musculoskeletal and neurological development of human body, vitamin D levels during childhood and adolescence have key importance. This is the first national-level study that analyzes the deficiency and concentration of serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D) among Indian children and adolescents with respect to various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.
Methods: Data of Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey (CNNS, 2016-18) was utilized for the present study. Vitamin D levels were assessed based on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been shown for the three age groups: 0-4 years (n = 12,764), 5-9 years (n = 13,482), 10-19 years (n = 13,065). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as: serum 25(OH)D < 12 ng/mL; and insufficiency as: 12 ng/ml ≤ 25(OH) < 20 ng/ml. 25(OH) D level higher than 20 ng/mL was accepted as adequate. Random slope multilevel logistic regression models were employed to assess the demographic and socioeconomic correlates of vitamin D deficiency.
Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration level was found to be 19.51 ± 8.76, 17.73 ± 7.91, and 17.07 ± 8.16 ng/ml in age group 0-4 years, 5-9 years and 10-19 years respectively. 49.12% of the children aged 0-4 years were having insufficient level of vitamin D. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was comparatively higher among female adolescents (76.16%), adolescents living in rural region (67.48), Sikh individuals (0-4 years: 76.28%; 5-9 years: 90.26%; 10-19 years: 89.56%), and adolescents coming from rich households. North-Indian individuals were having substantially higher odds of vitamin D deficiency in all the three age groups.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is considerably high among children and adolescents of India. The study highlights high-risk group which require prompt policy interventions.