Table of contents
- Vitamin D deficiency leads to the abnormal activation of the complement system
- Complement system Wikipedia Sept 2022
- VitaminDWiki - Immunity category contains
- VitaminDWiki pages with INNATE in title (14 as of Sept 2022)
- VitaminDWiki - Is 50 ng of vitamin D too high, just right, or not enough
- VitaminDWiki pages with 50 ng in title (60 as of Sept 2022)
- PDF References
Vitamin D deficiency leads to the abnormal activation of the complement system
Immunol Res. 2022 Sep 30. doi: 10.1007/s12026-022-09324-6
Huan Li # 1 , Xiaomin Xie # 2 , Guirong Bai 1 , Dan Qiang 1 , Li Zhang 1 , Huili Liu 1 , Yanting He 1 , Yanpan Tang 1 , Ling Li 1
Vitamin D deficiency can damage the human immune system, and the complement system is a key component of the immune system. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which vitamin D affects the immune system by analyzing the changes in the protein expression of the complement system under different vitamin D levels. We selected 40 participants and divided them into three groups according to their serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)VD):
- group A, 25(OH)VD ≥ 40 ng/mL;
- group B, 30 ng/mL ≤ 25(OH)VD < 40 ng/mL; and
- group C, 25(OH)VD < 30 ng/mL.
Serum samples were subjected to biochemical analysis, followed by proteomic analysis using high-throughput untargeted proteomic techniques. Vitamin D deficiency increased the levels of fasting blood sugar, fasting serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance and decreased the secretion of HOMA of β-cell function, which led to insulin resistance and glucose metabolism disorder. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency resulted in the abnormal expression of 56 differential proteins, among which the expression levels of complement factor B, complement component C9, inducible co-stimulator ligand, and peptidase inhibitor 16 significantly changed with the decrease in vitamin D content. Functional enrichment analysis of these differential proteins showed that they were mainly concentrated in functions and pathways related to insulin secretion and inflammation.
In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency not only contributes to insulin resistance and glucose metabolism disorder but also causes abnormal protein expression, resulting in the abnormal activation of the complement system. This study provides a novel theoretical basis for further studies on the relationship between vitamin D and the immune system.
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In conclusion, the main findings of this study were as follows:
- (1) vitamin D deficiency caused insulin resistance and glucose metabolism disorder,
- (2) vitamin D deficiency led to the abnormal expression of complement proteins and the activation of the complement system, and
- (3) functional enrichment analysis revealed that dysregulated complement proteins were involved in cellular functions related to insulin `secretion and glucose metabolism regulation.
This study provides a novel reference for further studies on the regulatory effect of vitamin D on the immune system.
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Complement system Wikipedia Sept 2022
The complement system, also known as complement cascade, is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promote inflammation, and attack the pathogen's cell membrane. It is part of the innate immune system, which is not adaptable and does not change during an individual's lifetime.
The complement system can, however, be recruited and brought into action by antibodies generated by the adaptive immune system.
VitaminDWiki - Immunity category contains
see alsoVirus category listing has
Overview Influenza and vitamin D
Vitamin D helps both the innate and adaptive immune systems fight COVID-19 – Jan 2022
Vitamin D aids the clearing out of old cells (autophagy) – many studies
600,000 IU of Vitamin D (total) allowed previously weak immune systems to fight off a virus antigen - Nov 2020
Search for treg OR "t-cell" in VitaminDWiki 1440 items as of Jan 2020
141 VitaminDWiki pages contained "infection" in title (June 2021)
Search VitaminDWik for BACTERIA in title 25 items as of Aug 2019
Vitamin D and the Immune System – chapter Aug 2019
7X less risk of influenza if Vitamin D levels higher than 30 ng – Oct 2017
Common cold prevented and treated by Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, and Echinacea – review April 2018
Vitamin D improves T Cell immunity – RCT Feb 2016
Immune system - great 11-minute animated video - Aug 2021 nothing about Vitamin D
18 titles in VitaminDWiki contained INNATE or ADAPTIVE as of Jan 2023
Increasing publications on vitamin D and Infection
VitaminDWiki pages with INNATE in title (14 as of Sept 2022)
This list is automatically updated
VitaminDWiki - Is 50 ng of vitamin D too high, just right, or not enough
VitaminDWiki pages with 50 ng in title (60 as of Sept 2022)
This list is automatically updated
Complement system part I – molecular mechanisms of activation and regulation - 2015 PDF
Complement system part II - 2015 PDF
No mention of vitamin in either one
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