Mol Carcinog. 2013 Aug 31. doi: 10.1002/mc.22054.
Findlay VJ, Moretz RE, Wang C, Vaena SG, Bandurraga SG, Ashenafi M, Marshall DT, Watson DK, Camp ER.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.
Recently, a reciprocal relationship between calcitriol and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition has been described. Therefore, we hypothesized that calcitriol (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ) would enhance radiation sensitivity in colorectal cancer regulated by epithelial mesenchymal transition. Vitamin-D receptor, E-cadherin and vimentin protein as well as E-cadherin, Snail and Slug mRNA levels were assessed in a panel of human colorectal cancer cell lines at baseline and in response calcitriol. We defined cell lines as calcitriol sensitive based on demonstrating an enhanced epithelial phenotype with increased E-cadherin, reduced vimentin and decreased expression of Snail and Slug as well as decreased cellular migration in response to calcitriol.
In calcitriol sensitive cells, including DLD-1 and HCT116, 24 h calcitriol pre-treatment enhanced the radiation sensitivity by 2.3- and 2.6-fold, respectively, at 4 Gy (P < 0.05).
In contrast, SW620 cells with high baseline mesenchymal features including high Slug and vimentin expression with low E-cadherin expression demonstrated no significant radiation sensitizing response to calcitriol treatment.
Similarly, transfection of Slug in the calcitriol sensitive colon cancer cell lines, DLD-1 and HCT 116, completely inhibited the radiation sensitizing effect of calcitriol.
Collectively, we demonstrate that calcitriol can enhance the therapeutic effects of radiation in colon cancer cells and Slug expression mitigates this observed effect potentially representing an effective biomarker for calcitriol therapy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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