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Celiac Disease: Vitamin D levels do not change with season (not outdoors much) – March 2024

Differences in Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels at Diagnosis of Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes

Nutrients. 2024 Mar 5;16(5):743. doi: 10.3390/nu16050743.
Monica Marino 1, Tiziana Galeazzi 2, Rosaria Gesuita 3, Salima Ricci 4, Carlo Catassi 4, Valentino Cherubini 1, Elena Lionetti 4

Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the vitamin D levels, evaluated as plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of children with a new diagnosis of celiac disease (CD), of children with a new onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and in children with CD at diagnosis of T1D (T1D&CD).

Methods: In this single-center observational study, we collected data for four groups of children and adolescents: T1D, CD, T1D&CD, and a control group (CG). The CG included schoolchildren who had negative results during a mass screening campaign for CD and were not diagnosed for T1D, according to RIDI Marche registry data, were considered for the purposes of this study. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D2, and 25(OH)D3 were considered as the parameters for evaluating vitamin D nutritional status, and the date of measurement was recorded to analyze vitamin D level seasonality. Vitamin D nutritional status was categorized as follows: severe deficiency (<10 ng/mL), deficiency (<20 ng/mL), insufficiency (20-29 ng/mL), or sufficiency/adequacy (≥30 ng/mL). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the groups. The association of 25(OH)D levels with health conditions and seasonal differences of 25(OH)D levels was analyzed using a multiple linear regression model.

Results: The number of children enrolled for the present study was 393: 131 in the CG, 131 CD, 109 T1D, and 22 T1D&CD. Significantly lower levels of vitamin D were displayed for children with CD, T1D, or both the diseases. Interestingly, severe vitamin D deficiency was detected in no children with CD, 1.5% of children in the CG, in 24.4% with T1D, and 31.8% with T1D&CD (p < 0.001). As expected, the CG children vitamin D levels were significantly influenced by seasonality. Contrarily, no seasonal differences were reported in children with CD, T1D, and T1D&CD. Multiple regression analysis showed that children with T1D and T1D&CD had lower 25(OH)D levels of 9.9 ng/mL (95% CI: 5.4; 14.5) and 14.4 ng/mL (95% CI: 6.2-22.7) compared to CG children (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our results showed low levels of vitamin D diagnosis of T1D, CD, and T1D&CD; however, severe deficiency was only reported in children with T1D and T1D&CD. More studies are needed to better understand the role of this deficiency in children newly diagnosed with CD and T1D.
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Reasons why CD may not be outdoors much - Perplexity AI March 2024

  • "...individuals with celiac disease may experience symptoms that could inhibit their physical activity, such as fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms, and anemia.
  • These symptoms might make it more challenging for them to engage in outdoor activities. Additionally, the necessity of adhering to a strict gluten-free diet may also impact their ability to participate in spontaneous outdoor activities, as they need to plan their meals carefully and may find it difficult to find suitable food options when away from home.

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Vitamin D levels do not vary with season sometimes

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
20950 CD season.png admin 13 Mar, 2024 81.84 Kb 31
20949 Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes_CompressPdf.pdf admin 13 Mar, 2024 242.82 Kb 18