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Calcifediol (semi-activated Vitamin D) might treat Respiratory Diseases such as COVID - July 2022


Calcifediol for Use in Treatment of Respiratory Disease

Nutrients 2022, 14, 2447. https://doi.org/10.3390/ nu14122447
Marta Entrenas-Castillo 2, Lourdes Salinero-González 3, Luis M. Entrenas-Costa 1,2, 4 and Rubén Andújar-Espinosa 5,6,*@
1 Pneumology Department, Hospital QuironSalud, 14004 Cordoba, Spain; marenca at gmail.com (M.E.-C.); luis.m.entrenas at gmail.com (L.M.E.-C.)
2 School of Medicine, University of Córdoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
3 Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, 30003 Murcia, Spain; lourdessalinero at hotmail.com
4 Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
5 Pneumology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 Murcia, Spain
6 Medicine Department, University of Murcia, 30120 Murcia, Spain * Correspondence: rubemed at hotmail.com

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Calcifediol is the prohormone of the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES). It requires hydroxylation to move to 1,25(OH)2D3 or calcitriol, the active form that exerts its functions by activating the vitamin D receptor (VDR) that is expressed in many organs, including the lungs. Due to its rapid oral absorption and because it does not require first hepatic hydroxylation, it is a good option to replace the prevalent deficiency of vitamin D (25 hydroxyvitamin D; 25OHD), to which patients with respiratory pathologies are no strangers. Correcting 25OHD deficiency can decrease the risk of upper respiratory infections and thus improve asthma and COPD control. The same happens with other respiratory pathologies and, in particular, COVID-19. Calcifediol may be a good option for raising 25OHD serum levels quickly because the profile of inflammatory cytokines exhibited by patients with inflammatory respiratory diseases, such as asthma, COPD or COVID-19, can increase the degradation of the active metabolites of the VDES. The aim of this narrative revision is to report the current evidence on the role of calcifediol in main respiratory diseases. In conclusion, good 25OHD status may have beneficial effects on the clinical course of respiratory diseases, including COVID-19. This hypothesis should be confirmed in large, randomized trials. Otherwise, a rapid correction of 25(OH)D deficiency can be useful for patients with respiratory disease.
here endogenous synthesis is profoundly impaired (such as in vulnerable groups of people, including newborns, infants, people who cover their skin for religious or cultural reasons or those with dark skin, especially if they live in northern countries, and in elderly people confined to the home, such as nursing home residents, etc.) [1]. Vitamin D is part of an endocrine system, the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), in much the same way as other steroid hormones. Calcifediol is a prohormone of this endocrine system and is produced mainly after hepatic hydroxylation of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). In order to convert to the active hormonal form (calcitriol), new hydroxylation by the enzyme 25(OH)D-1a-hydroxylase is necessary [2,3] (Figure 1).
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VitaminDWiki - Calcidiol contains

41 items in Calcidiol category

Calcidiol = Calcifediol = 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 = 25(OH)D = semi-activated Vitamin D
See also


VitaminDWiki - 8 studies in both categories Virus and Calcidiol

This list is automatically updated


VitaminDWiki pages with RESPIRATORY in title (73 as of July 2022)

Note: Calcidiol is rarely listed
This list is automatically updated

Items found: 74
Title Modified
Cod liver oil does not prevent Respiratory Infections (no surprise, only 400 IU of vitamin D) RCT – Sept 2022 08 Sep, 2022
Calcifediol (semi-activated Vitamin D) might treat Respiratory Diseases such as COVID - July 2022 19 Jul, 2022
2.4 X fewer lower respiratory track infections in infants getting 400 IU of Vitamin D – May 2022 24 May, 2022
Small doses of vitamin D do not reduce risk of Acute Respiratory Infection - meta-analysis Feb 2022 15 Feb, 2022
Viral respiratory infections reduced by both Vitamin D and Zinc – meta-analysis -Oct 2021 11 Oct, 2021
Respiratory viral infection (RSV) and low vitamin D - several studies 02 Oct, 2021
Acute viral respiratory infections (RTI) reduced by Vitamin D - 20 reviews - Aug 2020 24 Sep, 2021
Respiratory Tract Infections during cold weather – similar rates for low and very low vitamin D – Sept 2021 24 Sep, 2021
Infant Respiratory Infections not reduced by mothers taking small amount of vitamin D (28,000 weekly)– RCT July 2021 03 Jul, 2021
Vitamin D may reduce Respiratory Tract Infections and the use of antibiotics – March 2021 24 Jun, 2021
Vitamin D reduces Respiratory Tract Infections and reduces use of antibiotics – March 2021 15 Apr, 2021
Small vitamin D doses provide small benefits for acute respiratory infections – Meta-analysis March 2021 31 Mar, 2021
Vitamin D reduces viral respiratory infections – editorial April 18, 2020 02 Mar, 2021
Respiratory Tract Infection risk reduced 2X by Vitamin D loading doses – meta-analysis Jan 2021 22 Jan, 2021
Acute respiratory tract infections not reduced by Vitamin D if already have a good level – Jan 2020 15 Jan, 2021
Preemie Respiratory Distress Syndrome is 5X more likely if low vitamin D – Dec 2020 18 Dec, 2020
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in adults reduced by just 400 IU of vitamin D – RCT Dec 2020 12 Dec, 2020
Respiratory deaths in seniors – 40 percent are attributable to low vitamin D – Aug 2020 18 Aug, 2020
Respiratory problems in Children 1.4X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor – April 2020 22 Jul, 2020
Reasons why some Respiratory Allergy studies find that Vitamin D does not help much – June 2020 21 Jun, 2020
Zinc, respiratory tract infections and COVID-19 – July 2020 07 Jun, 2020
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Infants reduced 5.9 X by daily 600 IU of vitamin D (China) - March 2020 07 Mar, 2020
Four of the 7 types of human Coronavirus only cause mild respiratory infections 04 Feb, 2020
Respiratory Disease exacerbations (Asthma, CF, COPD) may be treated by Vitamin D – July 2019 26 Nov, 2019
No preemie had even 30 ng of vitamin D, lower D associated with more Respiratory Distress – Aug 2013 24 Jul, 2019
Acute respiratory distress – 100 percent of patients were vitamin D deficient– April 2015 09 Jun, 2019
Upper respiratory infection associated with poor Vitamin D Receptor – Oct 2018 16 Feb, 2019
Respiratory Distress Syndrome in preemies 5 X more likely if poor vitamin D receptor – Feb 2019 15 Feb, 2019
Respiratory infections reduced only 20 percent by Vitamin D (ignored dose size, duration, type, etc) – meta-analysis Jan 2019 25 Jan, 2019
Upper respiratory infection 15 percent more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor– Oct 2018 09 Dec, 2018
Low vitamin D at ICU admission is associated with cancer, infections, acute respiratory insufficiency and liver failure – Oct 2018 27 Oct, 2018
Respiratory Virus risk reduced 35 percent by Vitamin D (14,000 IU weekly) – RCT Oct 2018 18 Oct, 2018
Respiratory disase rate increase 3X after remove tonsils - June 2018 08 Jul, 2018
Respiratory tract microbiome and breathing problems 18 Jun, 2018
Childhood Respiratory Health hardly improved with 600 IU of vitamin D (need much more) – May 2018 28 May, 2018
Pollutants increase Respiratory problems, Vitamin D, Omega-3, etc. decrease them – May 2018 05 May, 2018
Respiratory Tract Infections in children 7.4 X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – 2008 11 Feb, 2018
Preemies with poor lungs (Respiratory distress syndrome) have low levels of vitamin D – Nov 2017 14 Nov, 2017
Respiratory infection in infant was 7 X more likely if low cord Vitamin D – March 2017 28 Sep, 2017
Acute respiratory tract infections prevented by vitamin D (even when ignoring the dose size – Meta-analysis Feb 2017 09 Aug, 2017
Vitamin D in respiratory diseases – Spring 2017 09 Apr, 2017
The relationship between Vitamin D and the respiratory system remains inconclusive – Jan 2016 06 Mar, 2017
Fewer respiratory infections if optimal level of vitamin D (more than 47 ng) – Sept 2013 03 Mar, 2017
Vitamin D effects on lung immunity and respiratory diseases – 2011 29 Jan, 2017
Respiratory tract infection eliminated in 36 percent of people by 4000 IU of Vitamin D – RCT Sept 2015 13 Jan, 2017
Monthly 100,000 IU of vitamin D decreased respiratory infection but increased falls – Nov 2016 10 Dec, 2016
Respiratory infections reduced by 63 percent with 4000 IU vitamin D daily - RCT Dec 2012 23 Nov, 2016
Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Children - associated with low vitamin D – meta-analysis Dec 2014 16 Sep, 2016
Immune response to respiratory viruses – vitamin D connection – review May 2015 17 May, 2016
Lower respiratory tract infections in children associated with Low Vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2016 15 May, 2016
Acute respiratory infection treated by vitamin D in 6 of 12 clinical trials – review Nov 2012 15 May, 2016
Respiratory tract infections in childhood – vitamin D is needed, no consensus of how much – Oct 2015 15 May, 2016
Acute respiratory infection worsened by too infrequent vitamin D supplementation – RCT June 2015 17 Dec, 2015
Respiratory diseases helped by vitamin D if initially have low level – RCT review Jan 2015 13 Oct, 2015
Respiratory distress after preterm birth is more likely if low vitamin D – review April 2015 05 Aug, 2015
Respiratory infections (RTI) cut in half by 20,000 IU weekly vitamin D if initially deficient – RCT March 2015 18 Apr, 2015
Respiratory Infection associated with vitamin D less than 40 ng – March 2015 18 Apr, 2015
Low dose Vitamin D during pregnancy and infancy results in strange acute respiratory infection response – April 2015 24 Mar, 2015
Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections – meta-analysis with charts June 2013 24 Mar, 2015
Acute lower respiratory infection 5X more frequent with low vitamin D intake – June 2012 20 Mar, 2015
Newborn acute lower respiratory tract infection associated with low maternal vitamin D – March 2015 20 Mar, 2015
Reduced viral respiratory tract infections by half by having more than 38 ng of vitamin D – June 2010 29 Oct, 2014
Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Children: 13 of 18 studies found associations with low vitamin D – meta-analysis Dec 2014 23 Oct, 2014
Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 less likely with vitamin D: Pregnancy 2000 IU, Infant 800 IU – RCT Oct 2014 04 Oct, 2014
Far fewer lower respiratory tract infections at 36 months if good vitamin D during pregnancy – Nov 2013 18 Jul, 2014
Respiratory viral infections might be prevented by vitamin D supplementation in those with low vitamin D – Sept 2014 18 Jul, 2014
Upper respiratory tract infection 2X more likely if vitamin D less than 30 ng – Aug 2013 12 Feb, 2014
Vitamin D reduces respiratory tract infections by 40 percent– meta-analysis Dec 2012 28 Oct, 2013
Vitamin D and respiratory tract infections - Wikipedia June 2013 29 Jun, 2013
Largest cause of infant deaths is respiratory infections, which is associated with low vitamin D – April 2011 23 Jun, 2013
100 percent of Acute Respiratory Failure patients had low vitamin D - April 2012 21 Jun, 2013
Low vitamin D associated with respiratory, digestive, and other deaths – Dec 2012 04 Jan, 2013
Hypothesis: Respiratory problems will decrease with increased vitamin D – Jan 2012 02 Dec, 2012
Just 300 IU daily of vitamin D reduced respiratory infections by 50% – RCT Aug 2012 25 Aug, 2012



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18133 Calcifediol_for_Use_in_Treatment_of_Respiratory_Di_CompressPdf.pdf PDF 2022 admin 19 Jul, 2022 13:42 423.02 Kb 23
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