Nutrition Volume 84, April 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.111106
|987,849||patients at University of Florida Hospital|
|32,000||tested for low vitamin D sometime since Oct 2015|
|887||Tested positive for COVID-19 in 2020|
|87||both tested positive and had low Vitamin D|
Note: Probably only a small fraction of those with low vitamin D actually were tested
Medicare, for example, will pay for only a single vitamin D test in a lifetime
Note: Some of the tests will have been done in the Spring, Summer, Fall
and the person could test OK during that season, but not in the winter
Note: Testing low probably was <20 ng/ml.
COVID-19 appears to be only fought by Vitamin D when > 30 or 40 ng
- Less likely to test positive for COVID-19 if higher Vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 6, 2021
- Vitamin D reduces COVID-19 by 80 percent - anonymous meta-analysis - Jan 5, 2021
- COVID-19 1.7X more likely to be severe if low Vitamin D - meta-analysis Oct 2020
- Low Vitamin D associated 1.8X increased risk of COVID-19 death in hospital – meta-analysis Nov 4, 2020
- Acute viral respiratory infections reduced by Vitamin D - overview of 20 reviews - Aug 2020
- Prudent to consider that Vitamin D has a role in COVID-19 – meta-analysis – Aug 7, 2020
- Risk of enveloped virus infection is increased 50 percent if poor Vitamin D Receptor - meta-analysis Dec 2018
- Hepatitis B patients have 2 ng lower level of Vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2019
- Influenza Vaccination not benefited by lowish levels of vitminin D – meta-analysis March 2018
As of Jan 22 had: 34 trials, 4 trial results, 12 meta-analyses and reviews, 44 observations, 25 recommendations, 42 associations, 83 speculations, 36 videos see also COVID-19 and Vitamin D: Governments. Health problems. Hospitals
The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionally affected a variety of patients with underlying risk factors such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and black race. Vitamin D deficiency, which can result in a compromised immune response, has been also linked to increased risk and increased morbidities associated with COVID-19. In the absence of large-scale longitudinal studies to determine the strength of association between vitamin deficiency and COVID-19, cross-sectional studies of large patient cohorts can be used.
We used the i2b2 patient's registry platform at the University of Florida Health Center to generate a count of patients using the international classification of diseases (ICD)-10 diagnosis codes for the period of October 1, 2015, through June 30, 2020. Logistic regression of the aggregates was used for the analysis.
Patients with vitamin D deficiency were 4.6 times more likely to be positive for COVID-19 (indicated by the ICD-10 diagnostic code COVID19) than patients with no deficiency (P < 0.001). The association decreased slightly after adjusting for sex (odds ratio OR = 4.58; P < 0.001) and malabsorption (OR = 4.46; P < 0.001), respectively. The association decreased significantly but remained robust (P < 0.001) after adjusting for race (OR = 3.76; P < 0.001), periodontal disease status (OR = 3.64; P < 0.001), diabetes (OR = 3.28; P < 0.001), and obesity (OR = 2.27; P < 0.001), respectively. In addition, patients with vitamin D deficiency were 5 times more likely to be infected with COVID-19 than patients with no deficiency after adjusting for age groups (OR = 5.155; P < 0.001).
Vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with increased risk for COVID-19.
PD = periodontal disease
PA = periapical (dental) abscesses