Am J Clin Pathol. 2020 Nov 25;aqaa252. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/aqaa252
Dieter De Smet 1, Kristof De Smet 2, Pauline Herroelen 1, Stefaan Gryspeerdt 2, Geert A Martens 1 3 4
Observation in Belgium, March 2020
Note: Belgium is running Clinical Trial #37 below using 100,000 IU of Vitamin D
As of Jan 26 had: 34 trials, 4 trial results, 13 meta-analyses and reviews, 46 observations, 27 recommendations, 42 associations, 84 speculations, 38 videos see also COVID-19 and Vitamin D: Governments. Health problems. Hospitals
Items in both categories Virus and Mortality are listed here:
- 2.7 fewer COVID-19 hospital deaths in those having more than 30 ng of vitamin D – Mayo Jan 9, 2021
- Elderly COVID-19 patients getting 400,000 IU of vitamin D had better survival (Italy, April)– Jan 14, 2021
- Iranians with COVID-19 were 2.3 X more likely to die if low vitamin D – Jan 2021
- .Iranians with COVID-19 were 2.3 X more likely to die if low vitamin D – Jan 2021
- Poor COVID-19 prognosis was 6 X more likely if low vitamin D – Jan 21, 2021
- 30 x fewer COVID-19 deaths in those getting 400,000 IU of Vitamin D - Jan 2021
- 2.8 X fewer COVID-19 nursing home deaths if add 10,000 IU Vitamin D daily for a week (small observation)- Jan 2021
- Italian nursing home COVID-19 – 4X less likely to die if taking Vitamin D– Dec 22, 2020
- 7X less likely to die of COVID-19 if taking Vitamin D loading dose – Dec 11, 2020
- COVID-19 male mortality increased 3.9 X if low vitamin D – observation Nov 25, 2020
- Hospital COVID-19 observation: 7X more likely to live if more than 20 ng of vitamin D– Nov 19, 2020
- COVID-19 lung death 4X more likely in Iran if less than 25 ng of vitamin D – Oct 30, 2020
- 9X COVID-19 survival in nursing home if had 80,000 IU dose of vitamin D in previous month – Oct 2020
- 14.7 X more likely to die of COVID-19 if less than 12 ng of Vitamin D (185 Germans) – Sept 10, 2020
- COVID ARDS deaths 2X more likely if less than 10 ng of Vitamin D – Aug 8, 2020
- COVID-19 mortality rate highest North of 35 degrees latitude (Vitamin D) – April 20, 2020
This study was available as a preprint May 16
- Vitamin D deficiency as risk factor for severe COVID-19: a convergence of two pandemics preprint May 5. updated May 18
- Vitamin D levels : all males at same hospital in 2019, males in 2020 with COVID-19
Males: Generally Lower Vitamin D levels were associated with worse COVID-10
Note: A few % had high level of vitamin D
Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency was previously correlated with incidence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level on admission and radiologic stage and outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia.
Methods: A retrospective observational trial was done on 186 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected individuals hospitalized from March 1, 2020, to April 7, 2020, with combined chest computed tomography (CT) and 25(OH)D measurement on admission. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to study if vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL) correlates with survival independently of confounding comorbidities.
Results: Of the patients with COVID-19, 59% were vitamin D deficient on admission: 47% of females and 67% of males. In particular, male patients with COVID-19 showed progressively lower 25(OH)D with advancing radiologic stage, with deficiency rates increasing from 55% in stage 1 to 74% in stage 3.
Vitamin D deficiency on admission was not confounded by
- chronic lung disease,
- coronary artery disease/hypertension, or
and was associated with mortality (odds ratio [OR], 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-11.55),
- age (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14),
- chronic lung disease (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.18-11.09), and
- extent of lung damage expressed by chest CT severity score (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.25).
Conclusions: Low 25(OH)D levels on admission are associated with COVID-19 disease stage and mortality.