Journal of Endocrinological Investigation (2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40618-021-01639-9
J. Oristrell, J. C. Oliva, E. Casado, I. Subirana, D. Domínguez, A. Toloba, A. Balado & M. Grau
Subset of a table in PDF
- As of July 29, the page had: 34 trials, 6 trial results, 21 meta-analyses and reviews, 62 observations, 34 recommendations, 54 associations, 89 speculations, 45 videos see related: Governments, HealthProblems, Hospitals, Dark Skins, 26 risk factors are ALL associated with low Vit D, Recent Virus pages Fight COVID-19 with 50K Vit D weekly Vaccine problems
- COVID-19 death 40 percent less likely if supplemented with Vitamin D and got above 30 ng (Spain 108,000 people) – July 2021
- 7X less likely to go to ICU if COVID-19 ward gave calcifediol (semi-activated Vitamin D) – July 2021
- 5X less likely to enter ICU with COVID-19 if get Calcifediol (semi-activated vitamin D) - RCT Feb 19, 2021
- COVID-19 defeated by calcifediol form of Vitamin D in Spain - pilot RCT Aug 29, 2020
To analyze the associations between cholecalciferol or calcifediol supplementation, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and COVID-19 outcomes in a large population.
All individuals ≥ 18 years old living in Barcelona-Central Catalonia (n = 4.6 million) supplemented with cholecalciferol or calcifediol from April 2019 to February 2020 were compared with propensity score-matched untreated controls. Outcome variables were SARS-CoV2 infection, severe COVID-19 and COVID-19 mortality occuring during the first wave of the pandemic. Demographical data, comorbidities, serum 25OHD levels and concomitant pharmacological treatments were collected as covariates. Associations between cholecalciferol or calcifediol use and outcome variables were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional regression.
Cholecalciferol supplementation (n = 108,343) was associated with slight protection from SARS-CoV2 infection (n = 4352 [4.0%] vs 9142/216,686 [4.2%] in controls; HR 0.95 [CI 95% 0.91–0.98], p = 0.004). Patients on cholecalciferol treatment achieving 25OHD levels ≥ 30 ng/ml had lower risk of SARS-CoV2 infection, lower risk of severe COVID-19 and lower COVID-19 mortality than unsupplemented 25OHD-deficient patients (56/9474 [0.6%] vs 96/7616 [1.3%]; HR 0.66 [CI 95% 0.46–0.93], p = 0.018).
Calcifediol use (n = 134,703) was not associated with reduced risk of SARS-CoV2 infection or mortality in the whole cohort.
However, patients on calcifediol treatment achieving serum 25OHD levels ≥ 30 ng/ml also had lower risk of SARS-CoV2 infection, lower risk of severe COVID-19, and lower COVID-19 mortality compared to 25OHD-deficient patients not receiving vitamin D supplements (88/16276 [0.5%] vs 96/7616 [1.3%]; HR 0.56 [CI 95% 0.42–0.76], p < 0.001).
In this large, population-based study, we observed that patients supplemented with cholecalciferol or calcifediol achieving serum 25OHD levels ≥ 30 ng/ml were associated with better COVID-19 outcomes.
This is an observational study with no real control group. The artificially selected controls include people who are supplementing D3 without a prescription. Only those supplementing vitamin D (D3 I guess, but maybe D2) due to a prescription are in the D3 supplementation group.
Likewise the calcifediol supplementation group - and they are only included if they had a creatinine test, which makes me think that most or all of them are being treated for chronic kidney disease.
The calcifediol supplementation group has an average age of 70 and 85% of them are women.
The artificially constructed control group matches those individuals other characteristics as much as possible - the only difference being that they are not being prescribed calcifediol. But some of them will be supplementing D3 or perhaps D2 without prescription - possibly at decent levels rather than the lower intakes many doctors are likely to prescribe. Also, I guess this artificial control group probably contains lots of people with chronic kidney disease.
There may well be some useful observations about 25OHD levels and disease severity, but we already have such observations.