Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
J Am Coll Nutr. 2021 Aug 31;1-11. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891 publisher wants $45 for the PDF
Mohamed Ben-Eltriki 1 2, Robert Hopefl 3, James M Wright 1 2 4, Subrata Deb 3
- COVID-19 death 1.6 X more likely if low vitamin D (24 studies) – 14th meta-analysis Aug 2021
- COVID-19 5X more likely to be severe if low vitamin D (23 studies) – 13th meta-analysis July 2021
- Severe COVID-19 3.5 more likely if low vitamin D (30 studies) – meta-analysis July 2021
- COVID-19 patients who had supplemented with Vitamin D were 3X less likely to enter ICU – June 2021
- Low Calcium associated with severe COVID-19 – several studies
- COVID-19 mortality 3X more likely if low vitamin D (999,179 people) – meta-analysis March 29, 2021
- COVID-19 was 2.6X more severe if very low Vitamin D (43 studies) – meta-analysis March 26, 2021
- Low Vitamin D associated with 2.7X more severe COVID-19 – 12th MA March 5, 2021
- Vitamin D supplementation fights COVID-19 – 11th meta-analysis Jan 24, 2021
- 3.7 X less likely to die of COVID-19 if supplemented with Vitamin D - meta-analysis Jan 5, 2021
- Less likely to test positive for COVID-19 if higher Vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 6, 2021
- Vitamin D reduces COVID-19 by 80 percent - anonymous meta-analysis - Jan 5, 2021
- COVID-19 1.7X more likely to be severe if low Vitamin D - meta-analysis Oct 2020
- Low Vitamin D associated 1.8X increased risk of COVID-19 death in hospital – meta-analysis Nov 4, 2020
- Acute viral respiratory infections (RTI) reduced by Vitamin D - 20 reviews - Aug 2020
- Prudent to consider that Vitamin D has a role in COVID-19 – meta-analysis – Aug 7, 2020
- Risk of enveloped virus infection is increased 50 percent if poor Vitamin D Receptor - meta-analysis Dec 2018
- Hepatitis B patients have 2 ng lower level of Vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2019
- Influenza Vaccination not benefited by lowish levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018
- As of Sept 21, 2021, the page had: 34 trials, 6 trial results, 23 meta-analyses and reviews, 63 observations, 35 recommendations, 55 associations, 89 speculations, 48 videos see related: Governments, HealthProblems, Hospitals, Dark Skins, 26 risk factors are ALL associated with low Vit D, Recent Virus pages Fight COVID-19 with 50K Vit D weekly Vaccines
Objective: The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D), the surrogate marker for vitamin D3, serum concentration and COVID-19 has come to the forefront as a potential pathway to improve COVID-19 outcomes. The current evidence remains unclear on the impact of vitamin D status on the severity and outcomes of COVID-19 infection. To explore possible association between low 25(OH)D levels and risk of developing severe COVID-19 (i.e. need for invasive mechanical ventilation, the length of hospital stay, total deaths). We also aimed to understand the relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers.
Methods: We conducted a comprehensive electronic literature search for any original research study published up to March 30, 2021. For the purpose of this review, low vitamin D status was defined as a range of serum total 25(OH)D levels of <10 to <30 ng/ml. Two independent investigators assessed study eligibility, synthesized evidence, analyzed, critically examined, and interpreted herein.
Results: Twenty-four observational studies containing 3637 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The mean age of the patients was 61.1 years old; 56% were male. Low vitamin D status was statistically associated with higher risk of death (RR, 1.60 (95% CI, 1.10-2.32), higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 pneumonia (RR: 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10-2.05). COVID-19 patients with low vitamin D levels had a greater prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, abnormally high serum troponin and peak D-dimer levels, as well as elevated interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein than those with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/ml.
Conclusions: In this meta-analysis, we found a potential increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection among patients with low vitamin D levels. There are plausible biological mechanisms supporting the role of vitamin D in COVID-19 severity. Randomized controlled trials are needed to test for potential beneficial effects of vitamin D in COVID-19 outcomes.