Association Between Vitamin D and Novel SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory Dysfunction – A Scoping Review of Current Evidence and Its Implication for COVID-19 Pandemic
Front. Physiol., 26 November 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.564387
Aida Santaolalla1*, Kerri Beckmann1,2, Joyce Kibaru1, Debra Josephs1,3, Mieke Van Hemelrijck1 and Sheeba Irshad3,4
1Translational Oncology and Urology Research, School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom
2Cancer Research Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia
3Department of Medical Oncology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
4School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom
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Objectives: To assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and increased morbidity/mortality with COVID-19 respiratory dysfunction.
Design: Scoping review.
Data Sources: Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to 24 of April 2020) and PubMed (2020 to 17 of September 2020).
Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies: A search using the search terms: [(cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol or vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 or vitamin D or 25OHD) and (SARS-CoV-2 or coronavirus or COVID or betacoronavirus or MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV or respiratory infection or acute respiratory distress syndrome or ARDS)]m.p. was conducted on the 24/04/2020 (Search A) and 17/09/2020 (Search B ).
Results: 91 studies were identified as being concerned with Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI)/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and vitamin D, and 25 publications specifically explored the role of vitamin D deficiency in the development and progression of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 related ARDS. Search “A” identified three main themes of indirect evidence supporting such an association. Consistent epidemiological evidence exists linking low vitamin D levels to increased risk and severity of respiratory tract infections. We also report on plausible biological processes supporting such an association; and present weaker evidence supporting the benefit of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the risk and severity of ARIs. Uncertainty remains about what constitutes an appropriate dosing regimen in relation to reducing risk/severity of ARI/ARDS. More recent evidence (Search B ) provided new insights into some direct links between vitamin D and COVID-19; with a number of cohort and ecological studies supporting an association with PCR-positivity for SARS-CoV-2 and vitamin D deficiency. The exact efficacy of the vitamin D supplementation for prevention of, or as an adjunct treatment for COVID-19 remains to be determined; but a number of randomized control trials (RCTs) currently underway are actively investigating these potential benefits.
Conclusion: Our rapid review of literature supports the need for observational studies with COVID-19 infected populations to measure and assess vitamin D levels in relation to risk/severity and outcomes; alongside RCTs designed to evaluate the efficacy of supplementation both in preventive and therapeutic contexts. The overlap in the vitamin D associated biological pathways with the dysregulation reported to drive COVID-19 outcomes warrants further investigation.
COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D - studies, reports, videos
As of Jan 26 had: 34 trials, 4 trial results, 13 meta-analyses and reviews, 46 observations, 27 recommendations, 42 associations, 84 speculations, 38 videos see also COVID-19 and Vitamin D: Governments. Health problems. Hospitals
Clinical trials are proving that Vitamin D fights COVID-19 in hospitals includes
3 very successful Clinical Trials have been published so far (31 trials underway)
- COVID-19 defeated by calcifediol form of Vitamin D in Spain - pilot RCT Aug 29, 2020
- Trial used a faster-acting form of vitamin D which is only available by prescription
- COVID-19 defeated 3x faster by 420,000 IU Vitamin D nanoemulsion – RCT Nov 12, 2020 - supplier not stated
- Nanoemulsion forms of Vitamin D might be faster acting than Calcifediol (above) if swished in the mouth (gets directly to the blood, is not delayed by gut)
- 20+ Vitamin D emulsion suppliers on Amazon Nutrasal Micro D3 1 teaspoon = 200,000 IU
- but not (yet) available thru pharmacies nor medical suppliers
- 2X fewer COVID-19 deaths observed with 300,000 IU of vitamin D