Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Burka-clad Pregnant Women in a 450-Bedded Maternity Hospital of Delhi
The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India, pp 1-5
Sangita Nangia Ajmani , Mohini Paul, Poonam Chauhan, A. K. Ajmani, Namrta Yadav
200 pregnant women with burkas – 23 ng mean value
39% Vitamin D inadequate (10-20 ng?)
38% Vitamin D deficient (<10 ng?)
Preeclampsia woman 100% were deficient
12 NICU Infants: 40% had deficient mothers
19 Low Birth Weight infants :79% had deficient mothers
See also VitaminDWiki
- Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D
- Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D
- Dark skin births are much riskier due to lack of vitamin D
- Small for gestational age birth was 6.5X more likely if mother was vitamin D deficient – March 2015
- Preeclampsia 415 items as of Oct 2015
Pages listed in BOTH the categories Pregnancy and Hypertension (preeclampsia)
- Preeclampsia 2X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – April 2019
- Preeclampsia reduced 1.7 X by aspirin (but reduced 7 X by Vitamin D) – Feb 2018
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 7X by 4,000 IU of Vitamin D daily – RCT March 2018
- Preeclampsia of offspring cut in half if mother who smoked had vitamin D fortified margarine – Dec 2017
- Preeclampsia reduced 2X by Vitamin D, by 5X if also add Calcium – meta-analysis Oct 2017
- Child 49 percent higher risk of being overweight if hypertension during pregnancy – Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 60 percent if supplement with Vitamin D (they ignored dose size) – meta-analysis Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia recurrence reduced 2 X by 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks – RCT July 2017
- Preeclampsia is not reduced by vitamin D (if you ignore vitamin D level, dose size, frequency and duration) – July 2017
- Preeclampsia doubles the risk of mild cognitive impairment – July 2017
- No Hypertension during pregnancy if more than 60 ng of vitamin D – RCT
- Preeclampsia changes to Vitamin D Binding Protein reduces Vitamin D in placenta – Dec 2016
- Preeclampsia risk reduced by higher levels of vitamin D (VDAART 4,400 IU) - RCT Nov 2016
- MAGNESIUM IN MAN - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH AND DISEASE – review 2015
- Preeclampsia 4X less likely if vitamin D levels increased by 8 ng during pregnancy – March 2016
- Pre-eclampsia 2X more likely if low vitamin D, unless adjust for vitamin D factors (BMI, skin color) – Dec 2015
- Preeclampsia and eclampsia associated with lower vitamin D, etc. – Sept 2015
- Preeclampsia increased risk of Congenital Heart Defects by 60 percent (vitamin D not mentioned) Oct 2015
- Preeclampsia reduced by Vitamin D (50,000 IU bi-weekly) and Calcium – Oct 2015
- Burkas reduce vitamin D levels, which causes pregnancy problems – Oct 2015
- Preeclampsia – hypothesis as to why vitamin D helps – June 2015
- Preeclampsia inversely proportional to serum Magnesium – Oct 2014
- Hypertension in pregnancy (preeclampsia) more frequent in winter (low vitamin D) – Jan 2015
- Preeclampsia rate cut in half by high level of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2014
- Preeclampsia 40 percent less likely if mother had more than 20 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2014
- Preeclampsia 2.7X more frequent if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013
- During pregnancy even 400 IU helps metabolic status – RCT July 2013
- 2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013
- 7X increase in early severe preeclampsia associated with low vitamin D – Aug 2012
- Preeclampsia 3X more likely if low vitamin D at 25th week – April 2012
- Low vitamin D results in severe preeclampsia and low birth weight – Mar 2011
- Women with low vitamin D 4X more likely to have preeclampsia in pregnancy – Nov 2010
- Seasonal variation in pregnancy hypertension is correlated with sunlight intensity -June 2010 no abstract
- Middle East and Vitamin D category listing has
118 items along with related searches and following chart
To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in burka-clad pregnant women and to study feto-maternal outcome in these women.
200 pregnant burka-clad women of 18–40-year age group irrespective of the period of gestation were recruited from the ANC OPD/ward of Kasturba hospital, and their vitamin D levels were estimated. Patients were categorized into vitamin D deficient, vitamin D inadequate, and vitamin D adequate according to The Endocrine Society Guidelines. The association of vitamin D deficiency with dietary/environmental factors was taken note of. Associations with preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), low birth weight (LBW), prematurity, APGAR score, and NICU admission were also studied.
78 patients (39.0 %) were vitamin D inadequate; 75 patients (37.5 %) were vitamin D deficient; and 47(23.5 %) were vitamin D adequate. Mean value of vitamin D level was 23.25 ng/ml ± 18.49 (SD).
- Fifteen patients (7.5 %) developed preeclampsia, and all 15 were vitamin D deficient;
- 13 (6.5 %) developed GDM; and only 5 (2.5 %) of them were vitamin D deficient.
- 19 patients (9.5 %) delivered LBW babies;
mothers of 15 (7.5 %) of them were vitamin D deficient.
- 12 patients (6.0 %) delivered premature babies, and
mothers of 4 (2 %) were vitamin D deficient;
- 12 babies had APGAR score <7 at 5 min;
mothers of 4 (2.0 %) were vitamin D deficient.
- Babies of 12 patients (6 %) were admitted in NICU, and of these 12 babies,
mothers of 5 (2.5 %) were vitamin D deficient.
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was high among burka-clad pregnant women, and it is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Routine screening of vitamin D levels is recommended in burka-clad women to improve the feto-maternal outcome.