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Autism with intellectual disability 2.5 times more likely if low vitamin D during pregnancy – April 2016

Maternal vitamin D deficiency and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: population-based study

British Journal of Psychiatry Open Apr 2016, 2 (2) 170-172; DOI: 10.1192/bjpo.bp.116.002675
Cecilia Magnusson, Michael Lundberg, Brian K. Lee, Dheeraj Rai, Håkan Karlsson, Renee Gardner, Kyriaki Kosidou, Stefan Arver, Christina Dalman

VitaminDWiki Summary

Of ~509,000 children born in Sweden
2476 ASD with intellectual disability 2.51 X higher risk if < 10 nanograms
7406 ASD without intellectual disability. 1.3 X higher risk < 10 nanograms
See also VitaminDWiki

Background Maternal vitamin D deficiency may increase risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but direct evidence is lacking.

Aims To clarify the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency and offspring risk of ASD with and without intellectual disability.

Method Using a register-based total population study (N=509 639), we calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ASD with and without intellectual disability in relation to lifetime diagnoses of maternal vitamin D deficiency. Although rare, such deficiency was associated with offspring risk of ASD with, but not without, intellectual disability (aORs 2.51, 95% CI 1.22–5.16 and 1.28, 0.68–2.42). Relationships were stronger in non-immigrant children.

Conclusions If reflecting associations for prenatal hypovitaminosis, these findings imply gestational vitamin D substitution as a means of ASD prevention.

Subset of table in PDF

Characteristic Vitamin D
> 10 ng
Vitamin D
< 10 ng
Individuals 509 092 547
Sweden 76.3 19.2 <0.0001
Europe 8.3 4.6 0.002
Outside Europe 12.8 38.9 <0.0001
Sub-Saharan Africa 2.6 37.3 <0.0001
Maternal history of neuropsychiatric disorder (%)a 2.4 9.3 <0.0001
Maternal history of affective disorder (%)b 15.4 36.8 <0.0001
  • a. Parental histories of neuropsychiatric disorder include any in-patient or secondary care out-patient record of diagnosed non-affective psychosis, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, ASD, or intellectual disability.
  • b. Parental histories of affective disorder include any in-patient or secondary care out-patient record of diagnosed affective disorder except for bipolar disorder.

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Attached files

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6550 Vitamin D during pregnancy and autism.pdf admin 12 Apr, 2016 134.82 Kb 847