Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Ukrainian Women: Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Vitamin D Status.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Jan;36(1):44-56. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2016.1174091.
- Getting vitamin D during pregnancy is even more important than avoiding alcohol
includes "Stillbirth rate = 0.9% if > 4 drinks per week"
- Hypothesis: Vitamin D would decrease alcohol problems – July 2013
- Alchoholics have low Calcium and low Vitamin D, increasing Vit D might help – Nov 2016
Question: Do pregnant women has a stronger urge to drink when they have low vitamin D (Winter and Spring)?
Carlson CR Jr1, Uriu-Adams JY1, Chambers CD2, Yevtushok L3, Zymak-Zakutnya N4, Chan PH2, Schafer JJ2, Wertelecki W5, Keen CL6.
1a Department of Nutrition , University of California, Davis , Davis , California.
2c Department of Pediatrics , University of San Diego , La Jolla , California.
3d Rivne Oblast Medical Diagnostic Center and OMNI-Net Center , Rivne , Ukraine.
4e Khmelnytsky Perinatal Center and OMNI-Net Center , Khmelnytsky , Ukraine.
5f Department of Medical Genetics , University of South Alabama , Mobile , Alabama.
6b Department of Internal Medicine , University of California, Davis , Davis , California.
Heavy alcohol consumption can alter vitamin D status; however, the relationships between alcohol consumption and vitamin D concentrations in pregnant women have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the vitamin D status in a population of alcohol-exposed (N = 180) and low/unexposed control (N = 179) Ukrainian pregnant women.
Women who attended prenatal care facilities in 2 regions of Ukraine (Rivne and Khmelnytsky) for a routine prenatal visit were screened for the study. At the time of enrollment (20.4 ± 7.0 weeks of gestation), blood samples and alcohol consumption data (during a typical week around conception and the most recent 2 weeks) were collected. Vitamin D status was assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations.
A high prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant Ukrainian women was observed. Overall, 50.1% and 33.4% of the women were classified as vitamin D deficient [25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL] or insufficient [25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/mL and ≤30 ng/mL], respectively, based on 2011 Endocrine Society guidelines.
Alcohol-exposed women had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations than low/unexposed women in Spring (p = 0.006) and Winter (p = 0.022). When vitamin D concentrations were grouped into sunny season (Summer + Fall) compared to not sunny season (Winter + Spring), there was a significant ethanol by season interaction (p = 0.0028), with alcohol-drinking women having lower circulating vitamin D compared to low/unexposed women in seasons of low sun availability.
These data suggest that when vitamin D concentrations are generally low (e.g., during seasons of low sun availability), alcohol consumption during pregnancy has a negative impact on vitamin D status.
PMID: 28169608 DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2016.1174091