J Crohns Colitis. 2013 Feb 8. pii: S1873-9946(13)00032-9. doi: 10.1016/j.crohns.2013.01.012.
Jørgensen SP, Hvas CL, Agnholt J, Christensen LA, Heickendorff L, Dahlerup JF.
Department of Medicine V, Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Electronic address: soerjoer at rm.dk.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease prevalence increases with increasing latitude. Because most vitamin D comes from sunlight exposure and murine models of intestinal inflammation have demonstrated beneficial effects of 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D treatment, we hypothesised that Crohn's disease activity is associated with low vitamin D levels.
METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 182 CD patients and 62 healthy controls, we measured serum 25-OH vitamin D. Stratified analysis was used to compare 25-OH vitamin D levels with Crohn's disease activity index, C-reactive protein, smoking status, intake of oral vitamin D supplements and seasonal variation in CD patients and healthy controls.
RESULTS: Serum 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with disease activity: Median 25-OH vitamin D levels of Crohn's disease in remission, mildly, and moderately active diseases evaluated by Crohn's disease activity index were 64, 49, and 21nmol/l (p<0.01) and by CRP 68, 76, and 35nmol/l (p<0.05), respectively. Patients who took oral vitamin D supplementation had lower Crohn's disease activity index (p<0.05) and C-reactive protein (p=0.07) than non-users. Crohn's disease patients who smoked had lower vitamin D levels (51nmol/l) than patients who did not smoke (76nmol/l), p<0.01. Overall, Crohn's disease patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding 25-OH vitamin D levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Active Crohn's disease was associated with low serum 25-OH vitamin D. Patients who smoked had lower 25-OH vitamin D levels than patients who did not smoke, independently of disease activity.
Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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