Prerint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.27.21250617
Sandra Lopez-Leon, Talia Wegman-Ostrosky, Carol Perelman, Rosalinda Sepulveda, Paulina A Rebolledo, Angelica Cuapio, Sonia Villapol
COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, can involve sequelae and other medical complications that last weeks to months after initial recovery, which has come to be called Long-COVID or COVID long-haulers. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to identify studies assessing long-term effects of COVID-19 and estimates the prevalence of each symptom, sign, or laboratory parameter of patients at a post-COVID-19 stage. LitCOVID (PubMed and Medline) and Embase were searched by two independent researchers. All articles with original data for detecting long-term COVID-19 published before 1st of January 2021 and with a minimum of 100 patients were included. For effects reported in two or more studies, meta-analyses using a random-effects model were performed using the MetaXL software to estimate the pooled prevalence with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviewers and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) reporting guideline was followed. A total of 18,251 publications were identified, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria.
The prevalence of 55 long-term effects was estimated, 21 meta-analyses were performed, and 47,910 patients were included. The follow-up time ranged from 15 to 110 days post-viral infection. The age of the study participants ranged between 17 and 87 years.
It was estimated that 80% (95% CI 65-92) of the patients that were infected with SARS-CoV-2 developed one or more long-term symptoms.
The five most common symptoms were
- fatigue (58%),
- headache (44%),
- attention disorder (27%),
- hair loss (25%), and
- dyspnea (24%). [[[difficult or labored breathing]
All meta-analyses showed medium (n=2) to high heterogeneity (n=13). In order to have a better understanding, future studies need to stratify by
- previous comorbidities,
- severity of COVID-19 (ranging from asymptomatic to severe), and
- duration of each symptom.
From the clinical perspective, multi-disciplinary teams are crucial to developing preventive measures, rehabilitation techniques, and clinical management strategies with whole-patient perspectives designed to address long COVID-19 care.
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The patient follow-up time ranged from 14 days to 110 days.
Six out of the 11 studies included only patients hospitalized for COVID-19.
The rest of the studies mixed mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 patients.
'Wonder if we can virtually eliminate Long Haul problems if restore immune system with Vitamin D, etc.
- Long COVID Treatment, Symptoms, and Recovery (Long Haulers) MedCram Video June 6, 2021 starts with the chart at the top of this page
- Podcast: Long COVID Questions AnsweredThe Atlantic May 6, 2021
- A third of Covid-19 survivors suffer 'brain disease,' study shows CNN. April 7, 2021
- "They found 34% of Covid-19 survivors received a diagnosis for a neurological or psychological condition within six months of their infection, according to the study published Tuesday in the journal Lancet Psychiatry."
- based on 236 379 survivors of COVID-19   PDF anxiety 17%. mood disorders 14%.
- Persistent symptoms 3 months after a SARS-CoV-2 infection: the post-COVID-19 syndrome? - July 2020
- Loss of smell lingers post COVID-19 Feb 24, 2021
- "More than 50% of health care workers infected with SARS-CoV-2 report that their sense of smell has not returned to normal an average of 5 months post infection"
- Longhaulers good description at COVID.US.ORG
- Symptoms and Functional Impairment Assessed 8 Months After Mild COVID-19 Among Health Care Workers - JAMA, April 7, 2021
- The researchers did not observe an increased risk for long-term symptoms after asymptomatic COVID-19
- PDF Note: Participants had blood sampling performed every 4 months - so their data may have included vitamin D levels
- How Should You Take Care of Yourself After You’ve Had COVID-19? ConsumerLab, April 20, 2021
- Affected individuals typically report experiencing one or more of the following symptoms: tiredness, difficulty concentrating, headache, loss of smell or taste, dizziness upon standing, heart palpitations, chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, muscle or joint pain, depression, anxiety, and/or fever (CDC, Post-COVID Conditions 4/8/21; Johansson, J Am Coll Cardiol Case Rep 2021; Perlis, JAMA Netw Open 2021; Boscolo-Rizzo, medRxiv 2021 — preprint). A surveillance study in England among 511 people who had recovered from COVID and 1,160 who were not known to have had COVID found that sensory (e.g., loss of taste or smell), neurologic (e.g., difficulty concentrating), and cardiorespiratory symptoms (e.g., chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations) were more common among those with long COVID than those with no history of infection, while dermatologic (e.g., rashes, hives, or bruising), gastrointestinal (e.g., bloating, nausea, cramps), and mental health symptoms (e.g., depression or anxiety) were not (Amin-Chowdhury, medRxiv 2021 — preprint). The duration of long COVID is still unknown, but at least one study has reported altered taste or smell persisting for up to 12 months (Boscolo-Rizzo, medRxiv 2021 — preprint).
- ConsumerLabs Jume 2021 - 10% to 50% who recover, up to 76% if had severe COVID-19
See also VitaminDWiki: COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D - studies, reports, videos
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