Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021 Aug;44:424-428. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.04.022
Gülhan Karakaya Molla 1, Özlem Ünal Uzun 2, Nevra Koç 3, Burcu Özen Yeşil 3, Gülsüm İclal Bayhan 4
Items in both categories Infant-Child and Virus are listed here:
- Younger are much less likely to die of COVID than elderly (posters) - Nov 2021
- COVID Vaccination trial for kids: 11 red flags - Oct 25, 2021
- Children and COVID - Sept 2021
- 8 of 10 pediatric COVID-19 infections were Vitamin D deficient (49 patients) – May 2021
- Severe pediatric COVID 5.5 more likely if low vitamin D (review of 6 studies) -July 2021
- 68 infants died in Italy 2009-2011 soon after vaccination, drop in US SIDS when vaccinations slowed due to COVID-19 – July 2021
- Hospitalized children with COVID-19 and inflammation had lower vitamin D – March 2021
- Severe childhood COVID-19 associated with Vitamin D deficiency (hospital in Turkey) – March 2021
- Vitamin D might reduce Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in children – March 2021
- 87 percent of children with COVID–19 had low vitamin D (small study) – Feb 2021
- COVID-19 long haul - meta-analysis, Vitamin D, etc.
- Vaccinations resulted in increased office visits for children 16 months later - Nov 2020
- 13 possible reasons why COVID-19 is less severe in children – Dec 1, 2020
- Vitamin D associated with reduced COVID-19 risks in children - GRH Nov 2020
- Children with low vitamin D far more likely to hospitalized with COVID-19 – Oct 2020
- Respiratory viral infection (RSV) and low vitamin D - several studies
- Increased weight in children 8X more likely for each unit increase in adenovirus (if ignore Vitamin D) – Nov 2019
- Severe hand, foot, and mouth virus is 2.9 X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor – Oct 2018
- More US infants die in 1st day than in all other developed countries COMBINED (and US gives vaccine in first day) – May 2013
- Hand, Foot, and Mouth disease (virus) strongly associated with low vitamin D – May 2017
- Half the risk of Influenza -A in infants taking 1200 IU of vitamin D for 4 months – RCT Jan 2018
- Child is 2 X more likely to get influenza if have older sibling (perhaps closely-spaced birth) – Sept 2017
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status, the nutritional effect on the risk of infection and the severity of the disease, and the contribution of nutrition to the course of the infection in pediatric patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease who required additional nutritional support after hospitalization.
Methods: The body weight, height, body mass index, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness of 49 patients aged 1 month to 18 years and diagnosed with Covid-19 and then hospitalized at the Ankara City Hospital, Pediatric Health and Diseases Hospital, Pediatric Infection ward between 15 May and 15 June 2020 were measured. Total protein, albumin, prealbumin, selenium, zinc, ferritin, folate, and selenium, C, D, E, and B12 levels were studied from blood drawn simultaneously from the patients.
Results: A total of 49 patients aged 8-18 years were evaluated. The median age was 13 years (age range 8-18). The females made up 53% and the males 47% of the group. No patient needed intensive care admission. Only 3 patients received antibiotic treatment and the others were followed up without treatment. The weight was normal in 75% and the height was normal in 90%. Mid-arm circumference and triceps thickness were normal in 72% of the patients.
- Vitamin D deficiency was present in 82%,
- vitamin B12 deficiency in 18%,
- vitamin C deficiency in 17%,
- ferritin deficiency in 16%,
- folate deficiency in 15%,
- vitamin A deficiency in 13%, and
- vitamin E deficiency in 7%.
Conclusion: No patient required intensive care admission. Only 3 patients received antibiotic treatment and the others were followed up without treatment. Malnourishment was present in 3% of the patients while 9% were obese.
Vitamin D deficiency was the most common vitamin deficiency while
- vitamin B12,
- vitamin C,
- vitamin A,
- vitamin E, and
- Folate deficiency
were less common.
Selenium and zinc levels were normal in all patients. There was no correlation between anthropometric values and susceptibility to childhood COVID-19 infection or the clinical course. It is possible that vitamin D deficiency increases susceptibility to the infection.