Gynecological Endocrinology, Nov 11, 2013. (doi:10.3109/09513590.2013.856408)
Ingrid Bergström 1,2, Mats Palmér 1, Jan Persson 3, and Agneta Blanck 2
1Centre for Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes,
2Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, and
3Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital,
Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
Ingrid Bergström, Centre for Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital,Huddinge, S-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: +46 721 777857. E-mail: ingrid.b.bergstrom at karolinska.se
The aim was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant immigrant women assessed by the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as the correlation to musculoskeletal pain.
- Sixty-eight pregnant immigrant women were included.
- Fifty-one native Swedish pregnant women served as controls.
25-hydroxyvitamin D, PTH, ALP and musculoskeletal pain, rated on a visual analogue scale, were analyzed in all women in gestational week 12 and in the immigrant women at 6–12 months postpartum.
A significantly higher proportion of immigrant women (77.9%) had levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D <25 nmol/l compared with 3.9% in controls.
Of the immigrant women, 29.4% had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <12 nmol/l, but none of the controls.
Musculoskeletal pain evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS) was significantly higher for the immigrant women than for the controls at gestational week 12. However, no within group correlation was seen between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, PTH or ALP and pain.
A significant negative correlation between changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and pain from gestational week 12 to postpartum was observed.
Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in immigrant women living in Sweden.
There is an indication that pain might be associated with hypovitaminosis D.
|< 10 ng||78%||4%|
|% less than 5 ng||30%||0%|
- Dark skin births are much riskier due to lack of vitamin D
- Vitamin D injection helped migrants a bit, but some had poor or even negative responses – Dec 2017
- Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D which has the following summary
IU Cumulative Benefit Blood level Cofactors Calcium $*/month 200 Better bones for mom
with 600 mg of Calcium
6 ng/ml increase Not needed No effect $0.10 400 Less Rickets (but not zero with 400 IU)
3X less adolescent Schizophrenia
Fewer child seizures
20-30 ng/ml Not needed No effect $0.20 2000 2X More likely to get pregnant naturally/IVF
2X Fewer dental problems with pregnancy
8X less diabetes
4X fewer C-sections (>37 ng)
4X less preeclampsia (40 ng vs 10 ng)
5X less child asthma
2X fewer language problems age 5
42 ng/ml Desirable < 750 mg $1 4000 2X fewer pregnancy complications
2X fewer pre-term births
49 ng/ml Should have
< 750 mg $3 6000 Probable: larger benefits for above items
Just enough D for breastfed infant
More maternal and infant weight
< 750 mg $4
CDC study of late 2011 has the following data
Percentage less than 20 ng
Also: Less than 12 ng: White 4%, Mexican 17%, Black 41%