Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2010 Jun;39(2):303-20, table of contents.
Thandrayen K, Pettifor JM.
MRC Mineral Metabolism Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
The mother is the major source of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in the young infant.
Maternal vitamin D status is an important factor in determining the vitamin D status of the infant and their risk of developing vitamin D deficiency and infantile nutritional rickets.
There is evidence that the current supplementation recommendations, particularly for pregnant and lactating women, are inadequate to ensure vitamin D sufficiency in these groups.
A widespread and concerted effort is needed to ensure daily supplementation of breastfed and other infants at high risk with vitamin D 400 IU from birth and of pregnant women in high-risk communities with 2000 IU.
Future studies are required to determine the optimal doses of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and during lactation, and for normalizing vitamin D stores in infancy to reduce the prevalence of infantile nutritional rickets. Operational research studies are needed to understand the best methods of implementing supplementation programs and the factors that are likely to impede their success. PMID: 20511053