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36X more likely for an infant to be low vitamin D if exclusively breastfed (Hong Kong) – March 2021

An Assessment of Risk Factors for Insufficient Levels of Vitamin D during Early Infancy

Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041068
by Keith T. S. Tung 1OrcID,Rosa S. Wong 1,Hing Wai Tsang 1OrcID,Bianca N. K. Chan 1,Siew Yan Wong 1OrcID,Hung-Kwan So 1OrcID,Joanna Y. L. Tung 1,2OrcID,Marco H. K. Ho 1,Wilfred H. S. Wong 1 andPatrick Ip 1,*OrcID

  • 1 Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR 000000, China
  • 2 Department of Paediatrics, Hong Kong Children’s Hospital, Hong Kong 000000 SAR, China



Low = < 20 ng
infants aged 2 to 6 months in Hong Kong
Apparently few Hong Kong mothers supplement with vitamin D after giving birth
multiparous mothers are an aditional risk factor
. – study did not mention the likely cause: Mother has not restored her vitamin D lost during previous pregnancy

High Risk category listing contains the following

65 items in High Risk Category

Those at high-risk of being Vitamin D deficient will require about 1.5X more vitamin D to restore their levels
Those who are at risk due to being obese need about 2X more vitamin D to restore their levels

see also
  Overview Dark Skin
  Overview Seniors
  Overview Obesity
  Overview Pregnancy
  Overview Deficiency
   Shut-in category which has 39 items
   Middle East category which has 151 items

22 VitaminDWiki pages had CLOTH in the title as of July 2022
16+ VitaminDWiki pages with SHIFTWORK etc in the title

VitaminDWiki pages containing BREASTFE in title (15 items as of July 2021)

Items found: 17
Title Modified
Breastfed Infants need more than an daily average of 800 IU of Vitamin D – RCT June 2022 21 Jun, 2022
400 IU of Vitamin D helped breastfed infants, need more – RCT Sept 2021 01 Sep, 2021
36X more likely for an infant to be low vitamin D if exclusively breastfed (Hong Kong) – March 2021 26 Jul, 2021
Maternal vitamin D deficiency can trigger rickets in breastfed infants – review March 2013 03 Feb, 2019
Breastfed infant bones not helped by 800 IU of Vitamin D (not enough) – RCT Dec 2017 12 Dec, 2017
Severe childhood dental problems 2.4 X more likely if breastfed for more than two years (low vitamin D) – June 2017 02 Jul, 2017
Vitamin D required for breastfed infants – daily or monthly, infant or mother – Jan 2017 20 May, 2017
Breastfed infants 6 times more likely to deficient in Vitamin D and Iron – Aug 2015 20 Jun, 2016
Breastfed infants: 90 percent had less than 20 ng of vitamin D, formula-fed: 15 percent – May 2013 20 Jun, 2016
Breastfed child needs even more vitamin D supplementation after 1 year – Feb 2016 28 Feb, 2016
Breastfed infants may get enough vitamin D (provided mom gets 6400 IU) - Oct 2015 07 Oct, 2015
400 IU vitamin D for breastfed - American Association of Pediatrics - Feb 2012 23 Sep, 2014
16% of exclusively breastfed infants so low on vitamin D that they had rickets – June 2010 28 Aug, 2014
Breastfed without vitamin D supplements – a problem for NZ infants Jan 2013 28 Aug, 2014
Breastfed Infants in Iowa got very little vitamin D, especially if winter or dark skin – July 2013 05 Jul, 2013
Only about 10 percent of breastfed infants get even the minimum recommended vitamin D – April 2010 26 Jun, 2013
Breastfed infants in Germany with 250 IU of vitamin D got to 56ng – Sept 2010 04 Sep, 2012

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Recent evidence suggests that breastfeeding may increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency in offspring. However, it is unclear whether increased risk results from breastfeeding alone, or whether it is associated together with other risk factors. This study surveyed 208 infant–mother dyads recruited by stratified random sampling in different districts of Hong Kong. Mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire on their demographics, history of risk behavior, and feeding practices. Peripheral blood samples were collected from infants to determine their vitamin D status. Among all infant participants, 70 were vitamin D insufficient or deficient. Being breastfed, being a girl, having a multiparous mother, and the use of sun cream were found to be the strongest risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency during infancy (all p < 0.05), after mutual adjustment. The cumulative risk model displayed a dose–response pattern between the number of risk factors and the risk of vitamin D insufficiency during this period. Our findings indicate the risk profile of infants with insufficient vitamin D. Guidelines and recommendations on healthy diet and lifestyle should be provided to mothers during the early stage of pregnancy to increase the likelihood of adequate levels of vitamin D in their offspring.

Created by admin. Last Modification: Monday August 30, 2021 15:25:31 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 7)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
15972 Infant Risk Factor.jpg admin 26 Jul, 2021 60.55 Kb 290
15971 Infant risk factors.pdf admin 26 Jul, 2021 574.28 Kb 294