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2X more likely to be depressed if low vitamin D (cohort studies) - Meta-analysis Jan 2013

Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis

The British Journal of Psychiatry (2013) 202: 100-107
Rebecca E. S. Anglin,
Zainab Samaan,
Stephen D. Walter and
Sarah D. McDonald
Rebecca E. S. Anglin, MD, PhD, FRCPC, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences and Medicine, McMaster University; Zainab Samaan, MRCPsych, PhD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University; Stephen D. Walter, PhD, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University; Sarah D. McDonald, MD, MSc, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Diagnostic Imaging and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Correspondence: Dr Rebecca Anglin, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, F413-1 Fontbonne Building, St Joseph’s Hospital, 50 Charlton Avenue E, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 2A6, Canada. Email: anglinr at mcmaster.ca

Background: There is conflicting evidence about the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and depression, and a systematic assessment of the literature has not been available.

Aims: To determine the relationship, if any, between vitamin D deficiency and depression.

Method: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomised controlled trials was conducted.

Results:

  • One case–control study,
  • ten cross-sectional studies and
  • three cohort studies

with a total of 31 424 participants were analysed.
Lower vitamin D levels were found in people with depression compared with controls (SMD = 0.60, 95% CI 0.23–0.97) and there was an increased odds ratio of depression for the lowest v. highest vitamin D categories in the cross-sectional studies (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.0–1.71).
The cohort studies showed a significantly increased hazard ratio of depression for the lowest v. highest vitamin D categories (HR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.40–3.49).

Conclusions ; Our analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that low vitamin D concentration is associated with depression, and highlight the need for randomised controlled trials of vitamin D for the prevention and treatment of depression to determine whether this association is causal.


See also VitaminDWiki

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