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16 factors increase the risk of early-onset colorectal cancer, only vitamin D decreases the risk – meta-analysis May 2023


Risk factors for early-onset colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

Front Oncol. 2023 May 5;13:1132306. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2023.1132306
Hongmei Hua 1, Qiuping Jiang 1, Pan Sun 1, Xing Xu 1

Background: The incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC), which means colorectal cancer diagnosed in patients under 50 years, has been increasing around the world. However, the etiology remains unclear. This study aims to identify risk factors for EOCRC.

Methods: This systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to November 25, 2022. We examined risk factors for EOCRC, including demographic factors, chronic conditions, and lifestyle behaviors or environmental factors. Random-effects/fixed-effects meta-analysis was adopted to combine effect estimates from published data. Study quality was evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Statistical analysis was performed Revman5.3. Studies not suitable for the meta-analysis were analyzed by a systematic review.

Results: A total of 36 studies were identified for this review, and 30 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant risk factors for EOCRC included

  1. male (OR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.08-1.33),
  2. Caucasian (OR=1.44; 95% CI, 1.15-1.80),
  3. a family history of CRC (OR=5.90; 95% CI, 3.67-9.48),
  4. inflammatory bowel disease (OR=4.43; 95% CI, 4.05-4.84),
  5. obesity (OR=1.52; 95%CI, 1.20-1.91),
  6. overweight (OR=1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25),
  7. triglycerides (OR=1.12; 95% CI, 1, 08-1.18),
  8. hypertension (OR=1.16; 95% CI, 1.12-1.21),
  9. metabolic syndrome (OR=1.29; 95% CI, 1.15-1.45),
  10. smoking (OR=1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.88),
  11. alcohol consumption (OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.22-1.62),
  12. a sedentary lifestyle (OR=1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.46),
  13. red meat (OR=1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.16),
  14. processed meat (OR=1.53; 95% CI, 1.13-2.06),
  15. Western dietary patterns (OR=1.43; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73) and
  16. sugar-sweetened beverages (OR=1.55; 95% CI, 1.23-1.95).

However, no statistical differences were found for hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.

  • Vitamin D may be a protective factor (OR=0.72; 95% CI, 0.56-0.92).

There was considerable heterogeneity among studies (I2>60%).

Conclusions: The study provides an overview of the etiology and risk factors of EOCRC. Current evidence can provide baseline data for risk prediction models specific to EOCRC and risk-tailored screening strategies.
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7+ VitaminDWiki pages have EARLY-ONSET in the title

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VitaminDWiki – Cancer - Colon category contains


13 studies of Colon Cancer and Vitamin D Receptor


51+ VitaminDWiki pages with both RISK and FACTOR in title

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Items found: 52
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