Association between blood level of vitamin D and outcome from Covid-19
>30ng/ml 85% had mild disease, 15% had moderate, severe, or critical disease
<30ng/ml 5% had mild disease, 95% had moderate, severe, or critical disease
https://ssrn.com/abstract=3571484 or https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3571484
Critical COVID-19 was 19X more likely if low vitamin D – April 15, 2020. (The authenticity of this study is disputed)
Survival associated with blood level of vitamin D
>30ng.ml 96% survival
<30ng/ml 12% survived
<20ng.ml 1% survived
Severity of disease associated with blood level of vitamin D
>30ng/ml 62% severe disease
<30ng/ml 85% severe disease
Vitamin D + vitamin B12 + Magnesium treatment.
26 Controls: 16 required oxygen therapy. 16 ITU admissions
17 Treated: 3 required oxygen therapy. No ITU admissions
5. Germany, Saarland
Respiratory disease fatalities associated with blood level of vitamin D. Ages 50–75 years.
Vitamin D <12ng/ml = 21% deaths
Vitamin D 12–20ng/ml = 13.7% deaths
Vitamin D >20ng/ml = 9.4% deaths
In this group, the incidence of respiratory deaths (not Covid-19) was twice as high in those with lowest vitamin D.
6. Newcastle upon Tyne
Severity of Covid-19 (need for ICU treatment) and blood levels of vitamin D.
ITU compared to medical ward for Covid-19 treatment
ITU patients had lower blood levels of vitamin D.
Also tended to be younger
7. Spain (Córdoba)
Randomised Controlled Trial, using Calcidiol, 25(OH)D, part-activated vitamin D.
Admissions to hospital with Covid-19 pneumonia
13 (50%) needed intensive care
2 (8%) died
50 treated with vitamin D
1 (2%) needed intensive care
Mortality from Covid-19 as predicted by blood levels of vitamin D.
81% had bood vitamin D <30ng/ml
=> 30ng/ml 5% died
<10ng/ml 50% died
Risk of Covid-19 infection predicted by blood level of vitamin D
Vitamin D deficient = 21.6%
Vitamin D suficient = 12.2%
Risk of Covid-19 infection predicted by blood level of vitamin D.
Vitamin D <30ng/ml = 28.6%
Vitamin D >30ng/ml = 14.2%
Mean vitamin D levels with Covid-19 infection and deaths.
Fatal Covid-19 8ng/ml
Blood level of vitamin D predicting critical Covid-19 and deaths.
Vitamin D <12ng/ml
Hazard Ratio for invasive ventilation = 6.12 in those with lowest vitamin D levels
Hazard Ratio for death =14.73 in those with lowest vitamin D levels.
Blood level of vitamin D predicting Covid-19 infection.
Vitamin D levels known and Covid-19 infection documented
Lowest level of vitamin D 20ng/ml, 12% risk of Covid-19 infection
Highest level 50–60ng/ml, 6% risk
Good blood level of vitamin D reduces risk of Covid-19 infection by 50%
14. Tehran / Boston
Blood level of vitamin D predicting severity of disease and death from Covid-19.
Vitamin D ≥ 30ng/ml 32.8%
Vitamin D < 30ng/ml. 67.2%
16.3% of 235 subjects died
Vitamin D ≥ 30ng/ml 9.7% of deaths
Vitamin D < 30ng/ml 90.3% of deaths
Deaths reduced by 80% in this with good blood levels of vitamin D
15. Birmingham, UK
392 healthcare workers tested for Covid-19 and Vitamin D.
Vitamin D <12ng/ml (30nmol/L) in 61 (15.1%)
Vitamin D <12ng/ml 41 out of 61 (72%) developed Covid-19
Vitamin D =>12ng/ml 170 out of 331(51%) developed Covid-19
Vitamin D <12ng/ml 17 out of 18 (94%) developed Covid-19
Vitamin D =>12ng/ml 12 out of 23 (52%) developed Covid-19
Association between blood vitamin D and severity of Covid-19.
149 Covid-19 patients. Mean vitamin D 15.2ng/ml
Severe/critical disease 102 (68.5%). 66.7% died. Mean vitamin D 10.1 ng/ml.
Moderate disease 47 (31.5%). 2.1% died. Mean vitamin D 26.3% ng/ml
Prediction of positive Covid-19 test based on blood vitamin D levels.
Vitamin D ≧ 20ng/ml: 317 people, 39 (12%) positive
Vitamin D < 20ng/ml: 172 people, 32 (19%) positive
A low level of vitamin D (<20ng/ml, 50nmol/L) predicted an increased (x1.77) risk of becoming Covid-19 positive.
These studies that have appeared suggest not just that vitamin D is very important in the escalation of defensive immunity in response to infection, but also that the blood level of vitamin D is a good surrogate for the measure of immunity.
The studies indicate that a blood level of more than”30ng/ml (75nmol/L) is a level that indicates protection against serious or fatal Covid-19 infection. A target level of 40ng/ml (100nmol/L) would appear to be appropriate, and to achieve this vitamin D in a daily supplement of 4,000 units is effective, perfectly safe, and costs about £12 per year.
There are three dimensions to vitamin D in respect of Covid-19:
- The importance of vitamin D as judged by its blood level and the association of vitamin D deficiency with unfavourable outcome and death.
- The importance of vitamin D as judged by its blood value and its prediction of unfavourable outcome and death with vitamin D deficiency.
- The favourable effect of giving a vitamin D supplement in the prevention of an unfavourable outcome.
In the above list there were:
- 8 association studies,
- 7 prediction studies
- 2 supplement studies (one randomised controlled)
Contents as of Oct 29:
- 33 trials, 1 trial result, 27 observations, 9 recommendations, 34 associations, 74 speculations, 25 videos
- Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and its Severity - Oct 27, 2020
- COVID-19 patients who happened to be taking Vitamin D did much better – Oct 27,2020
- Magnesium (which increases vitamin D) may fight COVID-19 - Oct 2020
- 9X COVID-19 survival in nursing home if had 80,000 IU dose of vitamin D in previous month – Oct 2020
- COVID-19 fought by Vitamin D in 43 studies - Oct 15, 2020
- COVID-19 antibodies 2.6 X more likely if had symptoms and low vitamin D (UK hospital staff)– Oct 5 2020
- 15 studies indicating that Vitamin D fights COVID-19 - Dr. Grimes Oct 9, 2020
- 32X more likely to have severe-critical COVID-19 in Turkish hospital if Vitamin D deficient – Oct 5, 2020
- Vitamin D Cuts SARS-CoV-2 Infection Rate by Half Mercola Sept 28
- 47% lower SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate if > 50 ng vs < 20 ng
- 58% lower risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 if > 30 ng vs < 30 ng
- 2X higher risk of hospitialization if <30 ng
- ICU patients got semi-activated Vitamin D - death rate dropped to 2% from 50%
- Virtually no COVID-19 cases in countries having more than 30 ng of Vitamin D - Sept 17, 2020
- Studies on Vitamin D and COVID-19 (11 categories) - Sept 20, 2020
- Rate of COVID-19 test positive is 40 pcnt lower if high vitamin D (192,000 people) - Holick Sept 2020
- 14.7 X more likely to die of COVID-19 if less than 12 ng of Vitamin D (185 Germans) – Sept 10, 2020
- Low D increases risk of infection. Dr. Fauci Sept 11
- "If you're deficient in vitamin D, that does have an impact on your susceptibility to infection. I would not mind recommending, and I do it myself, taking vitamin D supplements,..." 32 minutes into Instagram interview
- Dr. Fauci takes 6,000 IU of Vitamin D daily – Sept 2020
Click on chart for details
- COVID-19 defeated by activated Vitamin D in Spain - pilot RCT Aug 29, 2020
- COVID-19 1.77X less likely if more than 20 ng of vitamin D (489 people) – JAMA Sept 2020
- COVID-19 increased: 3.5 if Ultra-Orthodox, 2.6X if dark skin (52,000 Israelis) - Sept, 2020
- 1.8 X higher risk if <12 ng vs >30 ng - independent of sex, race
- Parkinson's Disease patients who were taking Vitamin D were 0.56 X less likely to catch COVID-19 - June 2020
- COVID‐19 in Parkinson’s Disease Patients Living in Lombardy, Italy: https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.28176
- Note: Parkinson’s patients – 41 percent now supplement with Vitamin D – Nov 2017
- WHO – Severe COVID-19 mortality reduced by hormones (should consider hormone D too) - Sept 2020
- COVID-19 Call to Action – eliminate Vitamin D deficiency – Manson Sept 1, 2020
- Vitamin D in Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 (16 reasons) – Sept 1, 2020
- Massive Review of papers on Vitamin D and COVID-19 - peer reviewed Aug 7?