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10,000,000 deaths annually in 2050 due to antibiotics no longer working (vitamin D can help)

A new antibiotic will kill most microbes (initially)
The surviving microbes are able to resist the antibiotic = antimicrobial resistance
Sometimes, in as little as 6 months, a new antibiotic is not longer effective
Drug companies have realized that they cannot profit from drugs with short lifetimes
Far fewer antibiotics are now coming to market

Vitamin D can help in many ways

  • Vitamin D can stop an infection from occurring (microbial or viral)
  • Vitamin D can reduce an infection – so less or perhaps no antibiotics will used
  • Vitamin D can augment antibiotics – so less antibiotics need to be used (dose size or duration)

VitaminDWiki misc:

Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations – 2014

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


The next pandemic is already here. Covid can teach us how to fight it - June 2021

Clipped from Technology Review
Growing resistance
Antibiotics date to Sir Alexander Fleming’s serendipitous discovery in 1928 that a substance excreted by mold on his laboratory plates was killing the bacteria he had cultured there. The mold was producing the raw version of penicillin, which after a decade of further research was turned into the first modern antibiotic.

Antibiotics are complex molecules that interfere with cellular reproduction in a range of ways—compounds that are made by organisms to compete with other organisms. By adopting them for human use, medicine stepped into the middle of an endless evolutionary battle in which bacteria both produced weapons against each other and developed defenses against those weapons. Fleming understood this. In 1945, three years after penicillin was first distributed to troops in World War II, he predicted that bacterial evolution—antibiotic resistance—would eventually undermine the new drugs. He said at the time that the only remedy was to use them conservatively, so that the bacterial world would be slow to adapt.

For the first few decades after penicillin’s introduction, bacterial adaptation and drug discovery leapfrogged each other, keeping antibiotics’ ability to treat infections in front of pathogens’ skill at evading them. But by the 1970s, that midcentury burst of innovation had faded. Making antibiotics is hard: the drugs have to be nontoxic to humans but lethal to bacteria, and they must use mechanisms that dangerous bacteria haven’t yet evolved defenses against. But moving from antibiotics produced in nature to synthesizing compounds in a lab was even harder.

Resistance, meanwhile, leaped ahead. Overuse in medicine, agriculture, and aquaculture spread antibiotics through the environment and allowed microbes to adapt. Between 2000 and 2015, use of the antibiotics that have been reserved for the most lethal infections almost doubled worldwide. Levels of resistance differ by organism, drug, and location, but the most comprehensive report done to date, published in June 2021 by the WHO, shows how fast the situation has changed. Among the strains of bacteria that cause urinary tract infections, one of the most common health problems on the planet, some were resistant to a common antibiotic up to 90% of the time in certain countries; more than 65% of the bacteria causing bloodstream infections and more than 30% of the bacteria causing pneumonia resist one or more treatments as well. Gonorrhea, once an easily cured infection that causes infertility if left untreated, is rapidly developing resistance to all the drugs used against it.

At the same time, resistance factors—the genes that control bacteria’s ability to protect themselves—are traveling the globe. In 2008, a man of Indian origin was diagnosed in a hospital in Sweden with a strain of bacteria carrying a gene cluster that allowed it to resist almost all existing antibiotics. In 2015, British and Chinese researchers identified a genetic element in pigs, pork in markets, and hospital patients in China that allowed bacteria to defuse a drug called colistin, known as an antibiotic of last resort for its ability to tackle the worst superbugs. Both those genetic elements, hitchhiking from one bacterium to another, have since spread worldwide.

In the face of drug development’s difficult economics, antibiotic research has not kept up. In March, the Pew Charitable Trusts assessed the global pipeline of new antibiotic compounds. Though the group found 43 somewhere in preclinical or clinical research stages, it determined that only 13 were in phase 3, only two-thirds of those would be likely to make it through to licensure—and none possessed the molecular architecture to work against pathogens that are already the most difficult to treat.

See also: Antimicrobial Resistance on web

  • Will 10 Million People Die a Year due to Antimicrobial Resistance by 2050? PLOS 2016 PDF
    • "One analysis in PLoS Medicine, referring to the 10 million figure, observes: “The scenario that seems to be underlying the most often quoted line entails a sharp initial rise of current resistance rates by 40 percentage points, after which rates remain stable until 2050, and doubled infection rates.”
    • Reported conceeds that it will be millions, but was unable to find documentation for 10 million deaths
  • wikipedia
    • Bacteria, Virus, Fungi, Parasites
    • CDC chart
    • Image

Created by admin. Last Modification: Monday June 28, 2021 01:34:41 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 13)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
15796 Will 10 Million People PLOS.pdf admin 24 Jun, 2021 678.13 Kb 270
15795 Antibiotic_Resistance_Spread CDC.jpg admin 24 Jun, 2021 314.06 Kb 259
15793 AMR GDP.jpg admin 24 Jun, 2021 55.19 Kb 354
15791 AMR deaths map.jpg admin 24 Jun, 2021 62.92 Kb 361
15790 AMR Review Paper - Tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations_1.pdf admin 24 Jun, 2021 1.99 Mb 323